Unit 1 (Partial Vocab)
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State of Nature
the hypothetical condition of the time before an established government
a government that concentrates political power in an authority not responsible to the people
system of government in which the power to govern is concentrated in the hands of one individual
are targeted for a specific purpose expressed by the national governments to the states
Those who are willing to use government to promote both order and equality.
The agreement of a judge with the Supreme Court’s majority decision, for a reason other than the majority reason.
- – Those
- who are willing to use government to promote order but not equality.
When the government gives block grants, and assigns them to categories, it's known as creeping categorization
The view that a small group of people actually makes most of the important government decisions.
Federalist #10, 15, 46, and 51
Written by Federalists James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, written in favor of the Constitution. 10: Factions 51: Checks and Balances 46: States's Rights
Formal Amendment Process
has two stages; proposal and ratification. Amendments can be proposed by a 2/3 vote in both the House and the Senate or by a national convention summoned by Congress at the request of 2/3 state legislatures. A proposed amendment can be ratified by a vote of the legislatures of 3/4 of the states or by a vote of constitutional conventions held in 3/4 of the states. Framers intentionally made the Constitution difficult to ratify.
Informal Amendment Process:
The informal amendment process is the alteration of the constitution without the passage of new legislation. This is done through redefining laws and changing the interpretation of laws.
- The belief that states should leave individuals free to follow their individual pursuits. Note that this differs from the definition of liberal later in this chapter
Those who are willing to use government to promote equality but not order.
A political ideology that is opposed to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property.
Those who are opposed to using government to promote either order or equality.
system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few people.
the view that nongovernment groups use their authority to influence governmentpluralist model of democracy: An interpretation of democracy in which government by the people is taken to mean government by people operating through competing interest groups.
Procedural democratic theory
view of democracy as being embodied in a decision-making process that involves universal participation, political equality, majority rule, and responsiveness.
those powers, which under the Tenth Amendment are reserved to the states or the people.
the distribution of a portion of federal tax revenues to state and local governments.
Second Treatise on Government
a political work published by John Locke that outlines his ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory.
– Economic depression forced many farmers into poverty and desperate times. State legislatures would not help and would, in fact, tax them more. Angry farmers (lead by Daniel Shays) descended on state capital of Massachusetts and attacked judges in courthouses for foreclosing their farms. State legislature brought in state militia to crush rebellion. Pointed out how bad the political system was. This is one of the reasons the Articles were tossed and the Constitution was written.
the central government possesses much authority and decision-making power. Local governing bodies simply serve as administrative arms of the central government.
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