Quiz 1 - Micro
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What is Microbiology?
The study of microbes: Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa, fungi, algae
Why is Microbiology important?
- Health (germs)
- Commercial uses
- Vital to Environment/Ecosystem Health
- Research Health
Who was the first person to see a microbe?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek with the first microscope in 1600
What is spontaneous generation?
The belief that living organisms arise from non-living matter
Who disproved spontaneous generation and when?
Redi, Louis Pasteur (mid/late 1800s)
Describe Redi's simple experiment that disproved spontaneous generation?
Meat in jar, cover on top, flies still came, therefore not emerging directly from the meat.
How did Pasteur disprove spontaneous generation?
- Broth sterilized by heat and air forced out of tube
- Microbes from the air could not enter and broth stayed sterile
- Flask tipped so air could center and broth became clouded with life
Who invented the first vaccination?
Jenner (late 1700s): Smallpox vaccine
What role did Pasteur play in vaccinations?
Used attenuated pathogens as vaccines in the late 1800s
What is attenuated?
Weakened pathogen or microbe
What was the name of the first person who survived rabies?
Joseph Mister due to Pasteur
Who first saw the importance in aseptic techniques and when?
Semmelweis and Lister (mid/late 1800s)
Where were aseptic techniques first done in the US?
1870 and 1800
Who is Robert Koch?
Germ Theory of Disease, worked with pure cultures, Developed Koch's postulates to systematically identify pathogens
What is Koch's postulate?
When was the Golden Age of Microbiology? Why?
1870s-1920s. Most major disease and their pathogens causes identified
Who discovered antibiotics and when?
Alexander Fleming, Penicillin 1920s
What happened around 1960?
Naively thought battle against infectious disease had been won
What are the new threats in microbiology?
- Emerging pathogens (H1N1, Avian Flu, E. coli 0157:H7)
- Reemerging Pathogens (Dengue virus, TB)
- Pathogen Resistance (MRSA, HIV, TB)
What are covalent bonds?
Sharing pairs of electrons between atoms
What is ionic bond formation?
- positive cation with negative anion
- electronegativitiy plays large role
What happens during hydrogen bonding?
electromagnetic attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom
What kind of backbone do organic macromolecules have?
What are the four main types of organic macromolecules?
CHO, Lipids, PRO, and Nucleic Acids
What are Carbohydrates?
CnH2nOn, Energy and Cell Structure
What are monosaccharides and some examples?
Simple Sugars (DNA, RNA, and lipids)
What happens during the formation of a CHO?
Dehydration synthesis rxn, Anabolism
What happens during the breakdown of a CHO?
Hydrolysis breakdown rxn, catabolism
What are fats?
Energy sources and storage (Glycerol & 3 attached fatty acids)
What are phospholipids?
- Glycerol & 2 fatty acids, includes phosphate group
- Main component of biological membranes
What are proteins?
Amino acids linked by peptide binds to form polypeptides
What is the function of proteins?
Function as enzymes (catalysts), form many cell structures
What is denaturation?
Loss of structure die to extreme temperature, pH change, chemical exposure
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