Therio Q1/II

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Therio Q1/II
2012-09-05 22:01:55
Therio Q1 II

Therio Q1/II
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  1. The normal cycle of the cow can be shortened by giving PGF2a during what part of the cycle?
    diestrus (day 6 through 17)
  2. Giving PGF2a as a drug while the CL is mature causes what?
    luteolysis and the onset of the follicular phase (proestrus) leading to estrus and ovulation in 3-4 days
  3. In a group of cows given PGF2a in how many days will all of them be in diestrus and have a CL that will respond to a second administration of PGF2a by coming into estrus together in 3-5 day?
    11 days
  4. What are veterinary prostaglandin products?
    lutalyse, estrumate, bovilene, prostamate
  5. What are the uses in vet med for prostaglandins?
    luteolysis, abortion, treatment of pyo-muco-hydro-metra, induction of parturition
  6. Who should not handle prostaglandins?
    women of child bearing age
  7. What is a decapeptide produced in the hypothalamus and transported to the pituitary gland where it causes release of FSH and LH?
  8. What is the use of GnRH most often in veterinary medicine?
    to cause ovulation or to release LH for luteinization of follicles and luteotrophic effects
  9. What is the function of GnRH in vet med?
    • stimulate release of FSH/LH
    • initiate and maintain follicular growth
    • stimulate ovulation
    • act as luteotrophic agent
    • Maintain spermatogenesis and androgen levels
    • downregulation of gonadotrophin release
  10. What are some uses of GnRH?
    • treat cystic ovarian disease
    • stimulate follicular development
    • stimulate ovulations to match AI breedings
    • maintence of the CL
    • increase spermatogenesis and libido in males
  11. What is a peptide composed of 9 amino acids, synthesized in the hypothalamus, transported to posterior pituitary, and released into the general circulation from nerve terminals. Also produced by the CL and endometrium.
  12. What does oxytocin cause?
    myometrial contractions, milk let down, aids in luteolysis, influences social, sexual, and maternal behavior
  13. Why is oxytocin used in vet medicine?
    induction of parturition, dystocia, milk let down, and to cause uterine clearance of accumulated fluid
  14. What are key hormones influencing pair bonding and monogamy in some species?
    oxytocin and vasopressin
  15. Why are reproductive steroids not typically administered orally?
    they are absorbed via digestive system, enter hepatic portal system, and enter the liver via portal vein, "first pass" through liver greatly reduces the bioavailability because only a percentage of the original dosage escapes being metabolized
  16. What are the four definitive signs of pregnancy?
    fetus, amniotic vehicle, chorioallantoic membrane slip, presence of placentomes
  17. How does the uterine character change during pregnancy?
    thinning of the uterine wall, increase in diameter of uterine horns, and turgidity
  18. How can turgidity of the uterus be recognized?
    when the hand is passed from side to side, the uterus presents a convex surface
  19. Palpation. of the amniotic vesicle from what days provides a definitive evidence of pregnancy?
  20. Between what days of gestation, compression of the uterus will allow allantoic membrane to slip between the fingers?
    35 and 90 days
  21. When are placentomes palpable?
    from 70-100 days
  22. In the early part of the period where placentomes can be palpated, where can they be best felt?
    midline and at the level of the horn near the intercornual ligament
  23. What is alterations the character of the pulse in the uterine artery?
  24. By what time period does fremitus usually occur?
    day 90-120
  25. In cow gestation, when is there the presence of the amniotic vesicles?
    by days 30-40
  26. At approximately what day of cow gestation is the fetus the size of a mouse?
    60 days
  27. At approx what day of cow gestation is the fetus the size of a rat?
    90 days
  28. By what day of gestation of the cow are the placentomes dime sized?
  29. By what day of gestation in the cow are the placentomes nickel sized?
  30. By what day of cow gestation is. the fetus the size of is small cat?
    day 120
  31. By what day of cow gestation are the placentomes quarter sized and the fetus is the size of a large cat?
    day 150
  32. By what day of cow gestation are the placentomes the size of half dollars and the fetus is the size of a beagle?
    day 180
  33. When does the ascent of the uterus of the cow commence?
    day 210-225
  34. What are progesterone and progestogenic drugs used for in vet med?
    mimic the luteal phase, suppress estrus, support pregnancy, and induce mammary development
  35. What are progesterone synthetics?
    megestrol acetate (ovaban) and Regu-mate (altrenogest)
  36. Since injectable natural progesterone in oil has a short half life, what depot forms of the synthetics have been developed for long term maintenance?
    medroxyprogesterone acetate and proligestone
  37. What are the uses of progesterone?
    delay heat (estrus), treat anestrus, contraception, support pregnancy when P4 deficiency suspected
  38. What combination of drugs induced lactation in dairy cows?
    P4, estradiol, dexamethasone, reserpine
  39. What is the hormone produced by 5a-reductase acting on testosterone and is the more androgenically active form in male organs?
  40. Testosterone and androgenic drugs are used for what?
    suppress estrus, enhance libido, and replace testosterone when deficiency
  41. What are injectable forms of testosterone? (testosterone esters)
    cypionate, enanthate, propionate
  42. What are uses for testosterone in vet med?
    make teaser cows or steers for estrus detection, keep racing femal greyhounds out of heat, testosterone responsive urinary incontinence in castrated dogs
  43. Peaks of estrogen concentration during estrus cause the release of what?
    GnRH and LH leading to ovulation
  44. What are oral forms of Estrogens?
    birth control and diethylstilbestrol
  45. What are uses of Estrogen in Vet med?
    mismate injections in dogs and cats, enhance uterine motility and clearance of uterine infection, enhance estrus, treat urinary incontinence in spayed dogs and cats, causes luteolysis in cows, causes abortion in cows, initiate proestrus and estrus in dog
  46. Why is the use of estrogens decreasing over time?
    overdosage is toxic in dogs (bone marrow suppression), high risk of uterine pathology in dogs, questionable efficacy, more specific drugs available
  47. What are 2 gonadotrophic protein hormones released by the pituitary after GnRH stimulation, and they differ somewhat in structure between species?
    FSH and LH
  48. FSH is what type of molecule?
    large protein with alpha and beta subunits
  49. Which subunit of FSH determines the activity?
    beta subunit
  50. Which subunit is the same for FSH, LH, and TSH?
    alpha subunit
  51. What is the endogenous source of FSH and LH?
    anterior pituitary
  52. The secretion of FSH is inhibited by what?
    inhibin-A and inhibin-B
  53. What augments the secretion of FSH?
  54. Activin and inhibin activity are controlled by?
  55. What is the function of FSH?
    initiates maturation of pre-antral follicles, initiates sertoli cell function for spermatogenesis