Card Set Information
general formula 3 main families
General formulas are considered organic derivitives of
Molecules are _____ around the oxygen because _____________.
bent; electrons repel eachother
Hydrogen and alkyl group/ any hydrocarbon group
Aryl group (aromatic)
Water General Formula
Alcohol General Formula
Phenol General Formula
Ether General Formulas
____ is functional group in alcohols and phenols.
_____ is functional group in ethers.
_______ don't have functional groups because ________.
Alkanes; they're saturated and only have single bonds
FG of alkenes
FG of alkynes
Primary/Secondary/Tertiary alcohols happen when ___.
OH is attatched to a Primary/Secondary/Tertiary carbon.
IUPAC Alcohol Naming:
- longest chain with OH group (OH becomes top priority, gets lowest #)
-in cyclic compounds, OH gets #1 position (assumed so no need to name)
-end names in -ol, and when more than one, write out full alkyl or aryl name with a di or a tri ie 1,2,3 butanetriol
IUPAC of methyl alcohol
IUPAC of ethyl alcohol
IUPAC of propyl alcohol
IUPAC of isopropyl alcohol
IUPAC of butyl alcohol
IUPAC of ethylene glycol
IUPAC of propylene glycol
IUPAC of glycerine or glycerol
but it is common not IUPAC
not real "bonds"
very strong intermolecular force that has a great effect on physical properties of alcohols (alcohols have higher BPs because of this)
carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativity so they attract well
Soluable alcohols have ______ carbons.
1-3; can disolve because of the hydrogen bonds unlike alkanes
As length of hydrocarbon chain increases, _________ decreases.
_________ is insoluable in water.
1-decanol, because the chain is non-polar while the OH is polar
Properties of alcohol +ether boiling points:
much higher than corrosponding alkanes because of hydrogen bonding
the more OH groups, the more H bonds, the higher the BP
ethers have no H bonds so they have lower BP than alcohols but higher than hydrocarbons
similar mass BP comparison:
alkanes have non-polar H bonding, goes up from there
butyl (n-butyl) structure
n-butyl alcohol, structure and IUPAC name?
sec-butyl alcohol, structure and IUPAC name?
tert-butyl alcohol, structure and IUPAC name?
acid catalyst such as H2SO4 or just write H+
uses Markavnikov's rule (H goes with his friends)
2 types, both use
H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) as a catalyst
REMEMBER TO PUT H2O IN THE PRODUCT
alkene + H2O
when you have
ether + H2O
when you have
(still have catalyst of H2SO4)
results depend on if alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary
oxidizing agents can be KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7
H+ (acid) catalyst
put oxidizing agent over catalyst ---->
if =O is on end, it's an aldehyde
if =O is on a sec. carbon, it's a ketone
TERTIARY ALCOHOLS CAN'T OXIDIZE BC WOULD BE TOO MANY BONDS
catalysts for hydration, dehydration, oxidation (and oxidizing agent for this one)?
: H+ such as H2SO4
: H+ cat., oxidizing agents can be KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7
OH group goes on C with fewest hydrogens
H goes on C with most hydrogens
Properties of Methanol:
previously made from wood
1 ton of wood = only 35lbs of methanol
now made with 2H2 + CO ------>
Properties of Ethanol:
made from sugars and starches (potatoes, corn, wheat, rice, grapes) by
enzymes as catalyst
2x percentage of alcohol by volume
ie 100 proof is 50% alcohol
All simple alcohols are _______ to some degree.
lethal dose to 50% of population
tested on animals
varies by species
Methanol is used as a
commercial solvent for paints
The most toxic alcohol is
can cause blindness or death
100mL is fatal to most
causes liver enzymes to form formaldehyde
Antidote to methanol is
liver enzymes prefer the ethonol reaction
which isn't nearly as toxic
Ethanol is used as
a solvent for perfumes, medicines, mouthwashes, beverages
Ethanol used for industrial purposes is
not taxed so it is denatured so no one can drink it
denatured= added poisionous things like methanol
Ethanol is fatal when you injest approxamately
prolonged exposure causes deteriation of liver, memory loss, addiction
most serious drug problem in US
Properties of isopropyl alcohol:
: rubbing alcohol
more toxic than ethanol but induces vomiting so usually not fatal
Polyhydric groups have
more than one OH group
dihydric alcohols are also known as
trihydric alcohols are also known as
Ethylene glycol is commonly used as an _______ because of its _______.
anti-freeze; higher boiling point, non-corrosiveness, lowers freezing point
Propylene glycol is commonly used as a
solvent for drugs
moisturizing agent for
Glyderol/ Glycerine is a sweet, syrupy liquid used for
lotions, lubricant, suppositories
solvent for medicines
the product of glycerine + nitric acid
reaction produces temps of 3000 deg C and 2000atm
detonates on impact, dynamite
heart medication when having a heart attack
very inert- don't react very much (all react with O2 though)
heavy-stick around for a while; dangerous
lower BP than alcohols
diethyl ether was the
first general anesthetic produced in 1846
laughing gas-for conscious sedation
narrow line between effective dose and lethal dose
non-flamable, safer, less nausia
IUPAC methyl benzene
IUPAC hydroxy benzene
m-xylene (can be either o,m or p)
IUPAC (1,2 or 1,3 or 1,4 dimethyl benzene)