Psychology 101 final test chapters 14,15,16

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jmaraki
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Psychology 101 final test chapters 14,15,16
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2010-05-04 03:52:39
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Psychology final Juneau UAS
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Key terms and key people from chapters 14, 15, and 16 from psychology themes and variations edition 8 for psych 101 at uas in Juneau Alaska for spring semester 2010
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  1. Medical model
    it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
  2. diagnosis
    distinguishing one illness from another
  3. etiology
    apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
  4. prognosis
    forecast about the probable course of an illness.
  5. deviance
    difference from the norm
  6. maladaptive behavior
    when it interferes with everyday functioning
  7. personal distress
    another factor assessed in diagnosis of psychological disorders based on an individuals report of their internal emotions.
  8. epidemiology
    study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
  9. prevalence
    the percentage of a population that exhibit a disorder during a specified period of time.
  10. anxiety disorders
    class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
  11. generalized anxiety disorders
    marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
  12. phobic disorder
    marked by an irrational and persistant fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger.
  13. panic disorder
    characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
  14. agoraphobia
    fear of going out the public places although it seems like it's a phobia, it's actually more like a complication of panic disorders
  15. OCD
    marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
  16. PTSD (post traumatic stres disorders)
    involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event.
  17. concordance rates
    percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
  18. somatoform disorders
    physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors
  19. somatization disorder
    history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
  20. conversion disorder
    characterized by a significant loss of physical function (with no apparent organic basis) usually in a single organ system.
  21. hypochondriasis
    characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illness.
  22. histrionic personality charateristics
    self-centered, suggestible, excitable, highly emotional, and overly dramatic
  23. dissociative disorders
    class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consiousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity.
  24. dissociative amnesia
    sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
  25. dissociative fugue
    lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity
  26. dissociative identity disorder
    coexistance in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different personalities aka multiple personality disorder
  27. mood disorders
    class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes
  28. major depressive disorder
    people show persistant feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
  29. dysthymic disorder
    consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify diagnosis on a major depressive episode
  30. bipolar disorder
    characterized by the experiece of one or more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
  31. cyclothymic disorder
    when they exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance.
  32. learned helplessness model
    derived by martin seligman depression is caused by passive giving up behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events
  33. schitzophrenic disorder
    marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
  34. delusions
    false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality.
  35. hallucinations
    sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input.
  36. paranoid schitzophrenia
    dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur.
  37. catatonic schitzophrenia
    motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
  38. disorganized schitzophrenia
    particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen
  39. undifferentiated schitzophrenia
    people who don't fit into the three other types of schitzophrenia marked by idiosyncratic measures of schitzophrenic symptoms
  40. negative symptoms
    involves behavioral deficits such as flattened emotions, social withdrawl, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.
  41. positive symptoms
    involves behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas
  42. expressed emotion
    the degree to which a relative of a patient displays highly critical or emotionally over involved attitudes toward the patient.
  43. personality disorders
    marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning.
  44. antisocial personality disorder
    marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms.
  45. insanity
    a legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness
  46. involunatry commitment
    people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will
  47. cultural bound disorders
    syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
  48. eating disorders
    severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy effors to control weight
  49. anorexia nervosa
    intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight and use of dangerous measures to lose weight
  50. bulimia nervousa
    habitually engaging in out of control overeating followed by unhealthy measures to remove it such as laxative abuse, vommiting, or excessive exercise
  51. binge eating disorder
    distress inducing eating binges that are not accompanied by purging fasting or excessive exercise
  52. representativeness heuristic
    basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is the the typical prototype of that event. ie thinking that mental illness isn't very common because our idea of mental illness is a person in a straitjacket
  53. comorbidity
    the coexistance of two or more disorders
  54. conjunction fallacy
    belief that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either alone
  55. availability heuristic
    basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with witch relevant instances come to mind
  56. Thomas Szasz
    a particularly vocal critic of the medical model

    SZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZSZS to be able to differentiate between the sounds made when pronouncing that, you have to be a critic of the vocal sounds.
  57. david rosenhan
    prooved that even mental health professionals have a hard time distinguishing the normal from un-normal

    prooved that determing mental illness is not as easy as determining if there is a ROSE iN HANd or not.
  58. martin seligman
    • preparedness explains things like why phobias of snakes are more common than phobias of rubber duckies
    • Learned helplessness model explains depression as a giving up because the subject is unavoidably administered adverse things ie, bad things always happen to them

    seLiGMan Learned Gelplessness Model
  59. Susan Nolen Hoeksema
    Women experience depression more because they're more likely to ruminate, they are subjected to more stress, and have female problems

    Ruminate sounds like HOEKy SEMAntics for thinking about your problems
  60. nancy andreasen
    thinks that the current classification scheme for schitzophrenia isn't useful and has thusly catergorzied the types into negative and positive symptoms.

    Nancy ANDreaSen Negative AND poSitive
  61. clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists
    specialize in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems.
  62. psychiatrists
    specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
  63. insight therapies
    involve verbal interactions inteded to enhance clients' self knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior
  64. psychoanalysis
    therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconsious conflicts motives and defenses through techniques such as free association and dream analysis tranference
  65. free association
    spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible
  66. dream analysis
    the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the clients dreams
  67. interpretation
    the thereapists attempts to explain the inner significance of the clients thoughts feelings memories and behaviors
  68. resistance
    largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
  69. transference
    occurs when clients unconsiously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical realtionships in their lives
  70. client centered therapy
    insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy.
  71. positive psychology
    therapy and reserch used to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existance
  72. group therapy
    simultaneous psychological treatment of several clients in a group
  73. spontaneous remission
    recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment
  74. behavior therapies
    involve the application of learning principles to direct efforts to change client's maladaptive beahviors.
  75. systematic desensitization
    behavior therapy used to reduce phobic clients' anxiety responses through counterconditioning.
  76. aversion therapy
    behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undersirable response
  77. social skills training
    behavioral therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasize modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping.
  78. cognitive behavioral treatments
    use varied combos of verbal interventions and behavioral modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive behaviors or patterns of thinking.
  79. cognitive therapy
    uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders
  80. biomedical therapies
    physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders.
  81. psychopharmacotherapy
    treatment of mental disorders with meds
  82. anti anxiety drugs
    relieve tension apprehension and nervousness
  83. antipsychotic drugs
    used to gradually reduce psychotic sypmtoms including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions
  84. tardive dyskinesia
    neaurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and tic-like movements of the mouth tongue face hands or feet
  85. antidepressants
    gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression
  86. mood stabilizers
    drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorder.
  87. electroconvusive (shock) therapy
    a biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convusions.
  88. transcranial magnetic stimulation
    technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain.
  89. deep brain stimulation
    a thin electrode is surgically implanted in the brain and connected to an implanted pulse generator so that various electrical currents can be delivered to brain tissue adjacent to the electrode
  90. eclectisism
    the practice of thearpy which involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system
  91. mental hospital
    medical institution specializing in providing inpatient care for psychological disorders
  92. deinstitutionalization
    tranferring the treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community based facilities that emphasize outpatient care.
  93. regression toward the mean
    when a person scores at one extreme and then when retested they score more average
  94. placebo effects
    occur when peoples expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive a fake treatment
  95. carl rogers
    client centered therapy

    Mr ROGERS lets the train direct where the episode will go.
  96. Joseph Wolpe
    • Systematic desensitization: heirarchy, relaxation, completeing levels
    • while relaxing

    The WOLf/PE has to climb the mountain before it can get the mountain goat and eat it so that he can relax.
  97. Aaron Beck
    Cognitive therapy

    To follow the strangers BECKon would be an error in thinking, something that AARON would strategically fix
  98. Dl.orothea Dix
    The woman who reformed the hospitalization of mental patients so that they were no longer in jail or in the poorhouse

    Dorothea says "There's no place like a mental hospital, there's no place like a mental hospital"
  99. social psychology
    the branch of pshchology that's concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others
  100. person perception
    the process of forming impressions of others
  101. stereotypes
    widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group
  102. Illusory correlation
    when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen
  103. ingroup
    a group that one belongs to and identifies with
  104. outgroup
    a group that one does not belong to or identify with
  105. attributions
    inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behaviors and their own bahaviors
  106. internal attributions
    ascribe the causes of behavoir to personal disposiitons, traits, abilities, and feelings
  107. external attribution
    ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental contriants
  108. fundamental attribution error
    observer's bias in favor of intermal attribution in explaining others behavior
  109. defensive attribution
    tendency to blame the victim for their misfortune so that one feels less likelt to be victimized in a similar way
  110. self-serving bias
    tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors
  111. individualism
    putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group membership
  112. collectivism
    putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the group one belongs to
  113. interpersonal attraction
    positive feelings toward another
  114. matching hypothesis
    proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
  115. reciprocity
    liking those who show that they like you
  116. passionate love
    complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstacy of intense emotion
  117. companionate love
    warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwinded with one's own
  118. intimacy
    warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship
  119. commitment
    and intent to maintain a realtionship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise
  120. attitudes
    positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought
  121. source
    person who sengds a communication
  122. reciever
    person to whom the message is sent
  123. message
    the info transmitted
  124. channel
    the medium through wich the message is sent
  125. cognitive dissonance
    related congitions are inconsistent... or contradict each other
  126. conformity
    when people yeild to real or imagined social pressure
  127. obedience
    form of complience that occurs when people follow direcer commands, usually from somene in a position of authority
  128. social roles
    widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave
  129. group
    two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent
  130. bystander effect
    people are less likely to provide help when they are in groups than when they are alone
  131. social loafing
    reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves
  132. group polarization
    when group discussion strengthens a groups dominant point of view and produces a shift towad a more extreme decision in that direction
  133. groupthink
    when members of a cohesive group emphasize comcurrence at the exxpense of critical thinging in arriving at a decision
  134. group cohesiveness
    the strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself
  135. prejudice
    negative attitude held toward members of a group
  136. discrimination
    behaviong differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group
  137. foot-in-the-door technique
    getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
  138. reciprocity norm
    the rule that we should pay back in kind what we recieve from others
  139. low ball technique
    getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed
  140. Solomon Asch
    Conformity
  141. Ellen Berscheid and Elain Hatfield
    Passionate versus companionate love
  142. Cindy Hazen and Philip Shaver
    Claimed that adults will have the same type of attachments in their realtionships as they did with their mother in infancy
  143. Fritz Heider
    Attribution internal or external
  144. Irving Janis
    Groupthink
  145. Stanley Milgram
    Obedience
  146. Bernart Weiner
    Attribution stable or unstable
  147. Philip Zimbardo
    Prision experiment
  148. Leon Festinger
    Dissonance theory

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