day 3

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day 3
2012-09-06 21:18:58

day 3 neural trasnduction
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  1. developing embryo has 3 distinct layers...
    ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  2. At day 40 afetr conception, 3 swellings form at the ANTERIOR end of nueral tube...they become...
    hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
  3. cerebral cortex consists of four parts...which are?
    Frontal, Occipital, Parietal, temporal
  4. Overview of occipital lobe
    processes visual information

    -Case Study: Oliver sacks turned color blind
  5. Overview of PArietal lobe (2)
    • - Somatosensory information
    • *touch

    -damage to parietal cortex can also lead to sensory neglect
  6. Overview of Temporal lobe
    processes auditory information, language comprehension and memory

    Case Study: H.M, epileptic young man that could not form new memories
  7. Overview of Frontal lobe
    voluntary motor behavior, taste, smell, language production, emotion, problem solving and many more

    Case Study: Phineaus Gage, got a pipe of his head. Changed his personality
  8. 3 other parts that are in the Telencephalon


    basal ganglia
  9. Neuron as a conductor...(3)
    -neuron is uniquely suited to send elctrical and (chemical) signlas

    -W/o these signals we die

    -Many poisons block electrical signaling in neurons
  10. Why do body parts go numb when affected by poison?
    neurons are not passing over because poison prevents them
  11. quick description of cell membrane
    seperates inside from outside
  12. Neuronal and cellular membranes are made up of?
    lipid bilayers
  13. Lipids have two groups that are associated with polar and nonpolar group?
    • Hydrophillic
    • *water loving

    • Hydrophobic
    • *water fearing

    -prevents free flow of molecules across the membrane
  14. How do molecules go into the membrane?
    there are channels that permit SELECT molecules to cross between the outside of the neuron and inside
  15. quick description- The extracellular and intracellular environment
    chemical composition of the fluid outside of a neuron and inside of a neuron are very different

    ex) Salt: Sodium + and chloride -
  16. The 4 main "players" (ions)
    - Sodium



  17. (main ions) Sodium
    has a positive charge and is in greater concentration outside the cell than inside
  18. (main types) Chloride
    has a negative charge and is greater concentration outside of the cell than inside
  19. (main types) Potassium
    has a positive charge and is in greater concentration inside the cell than outside
  20. (main types) Proteins
    have a negative charge and are in greater concentration inside the cell than outside
  21. main players have specific channels to move across the membrane. Which one is the exception?
    • negatively charged proteins
    • *they are stuck inside the cell
  22. Voltage
    measure of seperation of charge
  23. Seperation of chemicals lead to...
    charged membrane
  24. Seperation of charges leads to...
  25. Concentration Gradient
    when an element is in high concentration in one place, it tends to move to an area of lower concentration
  26. Electrostatic pressure
    charge of one kind accumulates in one place it tends to move away to an area of different charge

    ex) positive accumulates moves to an area of more negatives
  27. (membrane potential) Na+ more concentrated outside the cell than inside if given the oppurtunity to move across the membrane itt will move into the neurons b/c... (2)
    -of its concentration gradient and

    • -of electrostatic pressure
    • *inside of neuron is negatively charged
  28. (membrane potential) K+ is more concentrated inside the cell relative to the outside, if given oppurtunity to move out of neurons b/c...
    -of its concentration gradient and

    -against its electrostatic pressure since the inside of the neuron is negatively charged

    Net result: these forces to combine to drive only a little bit of K+ out of cell
  29. Why does the neuron stay charged?
    the membrane
  30. Ion Channels
    -only way ions flow through the membrane and back out

    -each "main players" has a channel that is selectively permeable to it

    -these ions are always open
  31. Sodium Pump
    helps restore the restoration process of a membrane

    -it moves 2 Na ions out of cell for every 2 K ions into the cell