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What are the functions of blood?
- The functions of blood is to transport gas exchange, delivery of nutrients, hormones, and heat and waste material. It also protects the immune respone (WBC's & antibodies), and blood clotting (platelets).
- Regultion fluid regulation and buffering.
How would you describe the composition and physical characteristics of whole blood?
- Whole blood is made up of plasma & formed elements.
- Plasma: made up of ground substance ->90% H20, 9% of plasma proteins, MAJOR=Albumin, Fibronogen (blood clots, produced by liver), globulins, 1% other.
- Formed Elements: Erythrocyte, leukocyte, thrombocyte.
What type of tissue is blood? Why is it classified in this matter?
- Blood is defined as a LIQUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
- -Plasma: liquid ground substance
- -Formed elements: cells
- -Lacks true fibers except when clotting
What cells are found in whole blood?
Erythrocytes (RBC), Thrombocytes (platelets), Leukocytes (WBC)
What are the types of Leukocytes (WBC's)?
Granulocytes and Agranulcytes
What are the names of Granulocyes in leukocytes?
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils
What are the names of Agranulocyes in leukocytes?
Lymphocytes, and Monocytes
Describe the structure of erythrocytes?
- Cell: concave disc (gas exchange, flexible=spectrin "net")
- Anucleate & almost no organelles
- High (hemoglobin) in cytoplasm
- Use anaerobic metabolism for ATP production.
- No protein synthesis or mitosis.
What is the functional portion of erythrocyte in Hemoglobin (Hb)?
- Globins-four protein chains/erthrocyte
- -2 alpha+2 beta=adult
- -2 alpha+2 gamma=fetal
- -1 per globin chain
- -each houses one iron molecule
- -each iron molecule binds one O2 molecule.
Describe the function of erythrocytes?
The function of RBC's are to transport respiratory gases from O2 from the lungs to tissue, & CO2 from tissues to lungs.
What protein is essential for erythrocytes to transport respiratory gases?
What ion is important for erythrocytes to transport respiratory gases?
Based on hemoglobin's structure how many
O2 molecules can be carries per hemoglobin molecule?
4, has no more than 4 molecules
Describe the production of erythrocytes?
- Erythropoiesis=growth/development of RBC's
- most parts occur in the red bone marrow.
- HEMOCYTOBLAST-> Proerythroblast -> Early erythroblast -> Late erythroblast -> Normoblast -> Reticulocyte -> Erythrocyte
How long does an fully mature erythrocyte cell live?
How many cells/second are produced in a healthy person?
How long does it take for regulation of erythropoiesis when there is an imbalance in homeostasis?
15-20 days to replace homeostasis balance.
Where is (EPO) Erythropoietin produced?
Produced by the renal & liver cells.
Stimulating (EPO) erythropoietin incresases the rate of what?
Proerythroblasts maturation- to produce more erythrocytes to ex. increase O2 levels which is stimulated by the kidneys.
What steps are required to form RBC's?
- 1.Gastroferritin-binds in stomach and transports it to intestine for absorption into blood.
- 2.Transferrin-binds in blood for transport
- 3.Apoferrin-in liver binds to create ferritin for storage.
- Vitamin B12 and folic acid=DNA synthesis
What separate the heme from globin in the spleen & liver?
What is the the chemical compostiton of hemoglobin.
Hemoglobin, the red coloring pigment flowing in our body is a complex compound. It has one iron to each heme totally 4.
What is caused by uncontrolled blood loss?
Treated with blood transfusion.
Hemorrhagic anemia- acute or chronic
What is caused by RBC lysis or rupture? Treatment depends on cause.
- Hemolytic anemia- check vit. B12 level.
- Hemoglobin abnormalities
- Transfusion reaction
- Bacterial/parasitic infections
What is caused by the destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow? Treated with blood transfusions or bone marrow transplants?
- Aplastic anemia- plastic=r/t cancer.
What us accompanied by renal disease? Caused by renal cell death and loss of erythropoietin production? Treated with synthetic erythropoietin?
What is caused by inadequate intake iron containing foods, inadequate iron absorption, "dilution" effects. Results in small pale RBC=microcytes. Treated with iron supplements.
What is caused by a deficiency in vitamin B12 due to an autoimmune attack of the of the stomach mucosa. Results in large immature RBC=macrocytes. Treated with vitamin B12 supplements.
What is caused by faulty globin chain=fragile hemoglobin. Classified according to the affected globin chain.
Thalassemias anemia (abnormal hemoglobin)
What is caused by HbS protein (beta chain). HbS polymerizes and becomes a gel under low oxygen conditions. RBC's become pointed & sickle. Loss in flexibility & stick in small vessels that causes pain, kidney failure, and strokes?
What is it called when you have too many erythrocytes?
What is the bone marrow disease that leads to an abnormal increase in the number of blood cells (primarily red blood cells).
What is the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells?
What are the normal hematocrit levels?
men 42%-52%; women 37%-48%.
What is the concentration of whole blood?
What is the normal hemoglobin levels?
men 4.6%-6.2%, women 4.2%-5.4%
Are values lower in men or women?
- Women-they have periodic menstrual losses, % body fat
- Men-have testosterone stimulate RBC production.
What is it called when blood has decreased oxygen carrying capacity?
What are the general signs due to an underlying disease?
- short of breath
- cold extremities
What is the cause of an underlying disease?
- low erythrocytes
- low hemoglobin
- abnormal hemoglobin
What are the classes of leukocytes?
T cells, B cells, NK cells
What include neutrophils, bascophils, and eosinophils?
Agranulocyes include what?
Monocytes and lympocytes
What is the most common WBC?
What may be caused by acute infection?
What defends against parasitic worm infections?
What are lymphocytes?
Lymphocytes - a type of infection-fighting white blood cell - are vital to an effective immune system. Lymphocytes "patrol" the body for infectious microorganisms
What are the two major groups of lymphocytes which recognize and attack infectious microorganisms.
B and T cells
Other types of white blood cells, such as _______ (engulfing cells) and ________ (natural killer cells), actually kill the infectious microorganism by "devouring" it.
- 1. Phagocytes (engulfing cells) and
- 2. Cytotoxic cells (natural killer cells)
Can leukocytes escape (diapedesis) the blood vessels and go into the tissuse?
What are the two subcategories of leukocytes?
Granulocytes and Agrannulocytes
What is the Granulocytes: Neutrophils morphology?
- 3-5 lobes connected by thin stands
- Has other shapes (bands or stabs)
- -Cytoplasm contains light purple granules
- (Multilobed nucleus)
What is the function of the neutophils?
- Bacterial Destruction
- -Phagocytosis-eat cells & bacteria-Release granules (degranulate) to destory bacteria
- -Respiratory burst=lysis
What are the classes/list of leukocytes?
- 2. eosinophils
- 3. basophils
- 4. lymphocyes
- 5. monocytes
Which leukocyte is most abundant and has biggest population?
What is the morphology of eosinophils?
- -Nucleus has two connected lobes
- -Granules are large, very abundant & pink/red
- (bilobed nucleus, red cytoplasmic granules)
What is the function of the eosinophils?
- -Degranulate to destroy parasites
- -Play a role in allergic responses, asthma & inflammoatory response
What is the morphology of basophils?
- -Nucleus usually obsured by granules but can be U or S shaped
- -Granules dark purple and very abundant
- (bilobed nucleus, purplish-black cytoplasmic granules)
What is the function of the basophil?
- The function of the basophil is to release histamine--Heparin secretion
What is the morphology of the lymphocyte?
- -Nucleus: Very large spherical nucleus; can be bent on one side; stains dark
- -Few visable granules
What is the function of the lymphocyte?
- "Non-self" cell destruction (cancer, viral infection, foreign cells)-Help other immune cells
- -Make antibodies
What is the Morpholohy of the monocyte?
- -Largest of WBC
- -Nucleus is kidney/S-shaped
- -cytoplasm small volume & contains few granules
What is the function of monocytes?
- -Diferentiate into macrophages=Phagocytosis (devour/eat/cell)
- -Help other immune cells.
What are the steps of leukocytes differentiation?
- Hemocytoblast (mother of stem stells)-> 2 lineages (families)
- Leukopoeisis:-Myeloid=granular & monocytes-Lymphoid=lymphocytes "Families" mature in response to:
- -Immune challenges
- -Colony stimulation factor (CSF)
- -Interleukins (IL-1.....IL25!)
- Red bone marrow stores granulocytes & monocytes until needed
- Lymphocytes develop in the marrow but move to other areas for complete maturation
Leukocyte disorders: what does leukpenia mean? what does leukocytosis mean?
- Leukopenia=low WBC
- Leukocytosis=high WBC
What is an example of a leukocye: _______ condition?
- Cancerous conditions of the leukocyte poplulation which often results in metastasis
- -cell dicides & reproduces abnoramlly with uncontrolled growth.
- -metastasis: cell can break away & travel to other parts of the body & set up another cancer site.
What types of Leukemia are there?
- Myeloid-severely elevated granulocytes
- Lymphoid-severely elevated mono or leukocytes
- Acute-sudden onset, rapid progression & death
- Chronic-slwo to develop & progress, death in ~3yrs
What are symptoms in Leukemia?
- -Deficiency of mature WBC while immure are elevated-anemia
- -frequent infections
- -abnormal weight loss
- -bruising easily
- -easily fatigue with minimal exertion
What is the treatment of leukemia?
Chemotherapy, bone marrow transplant & Control side-effects.
Describe the morpholoy of the thrombocytes/platelets?
- Cell fragment from megakaryocyte:
- -very small
- -blue cytoplasm
- -no nuclues
- -purple granules
- Granules specialized for clotting & chemotaxis (how a cell response, to be attracted to that site).
- -Live ~10days
- -most are housed in the spleen
What are the platelet functions?
- -chemotatic agents (how a cell response to be attracted to that site) for neutrophils.
- -growth factors for fibroblast and myoblasts
- Form platelet plug
- Dissolve "old" clots (Thrombolytic-"clot" "break")
- Phagocytosis of bacteria
What are the differentiation of platelets?
- Hemocytoblast: (mother of stem cells): display receptor for thrombopeisis-(making platelets)
- -"make" megakaroblast- DNA replication w/o cell division, REALLY BIG nucleus
- -megakaryocyte (bone marrow)- HUGE, multilobed nucleus, Lots of chromosomes, housed in bone barrow.
- -fragments (platelets) spleen-small areas of cell membrane+cytoplasm pinch off=platelets-> to spleen.
_____, _____, & _____, are steps in platelet hemostasis?
- 1. Vascular spasm
- 2. Platelet plug
- 3. Coagulation
Describle the process of hemostasis?
- 1.Vascular spasm-smooth muscle contracts causing vasoconstriction.
- 2. Platelet plug formation- Injury to lining of vessel exposes collagen fibers; platelet adhere.
- -platelets release chemicals that make nearby platelets stickly; platelet plug forms.
- 3. Coagulation-Fibrin forms a mesh that traps RBC's & platelets, forming the clot.
What are the factors that limit or prevent clot formations?
- Inhibition of thrombin-Dilution, Restriction to clot site, Inactivated by Antithrombin III & Protein C
- Heparin- Secreted by basophils & mast cells, Blocks(formation of prothromin activator, action of thrombin on fibrinogen), Promotes action of antithrombin III
- Prostacyclin coat- On inner surface of blood vessels, non-stick coat for platelets
What are some disorders of hemostatsis?
- Thrombus- stationary, impairs blood flow-> tissue damage
- Embolus- free floating in circulation
- Embolism-"stuck" embolus-> blocked blood flow, named by location, damage relative to vessel size & location.
- Triggered by: rough vessel walls, sluggish blood flow