PSYC of G ch. 1

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PSYC of G ch. 1
2012-09-06 20:03:56

Psychology of Gender ch. 1 Notes
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  1. "battle between the sexes"
    who is more boring - men or women?
  2. What are the theoretical perspectives?
    essentialist perspective

    constructionist perspective

    biosocial perspective
  3. Constructionist perspective
    product of social construction
  4. Sexual division of labor
    consistent across cultures

    women provide care

    men work 
  5. Sabine Durrant

    contends that men have become unbearably dull

    cited statistic that women talk more than men
  6. Neil Tweedie

    accuses women of being even more dull

    wishes that women do not talk more than men
  7. "hard-wired" gender differences
    • women's and men's brains have evolved in
    • different ways that furnish modern humans
  8. Essentialist view
    • some "essence", or underlying biological component, makes men
    • and women different

    • the differences
    • between men and women are biological, fixed and invariant
  9. Kira Cochrane

    the gender stereotypes expressed by Durrant and Tweedie are boring

    • those who take the position strive "to assert that men and women each have their own place and quite separate characteristics, and that these are defined not simply by
    • social structures and norms, but by biology"
  10. Evolutionary psychology
    • women and men are born with biological differences that dictate the
    • basis for different traits and behaviors

    women are the "opposite sex" - at the opposite end of the spectrum of wherever men are
  11. Biosocial view
    Kira Cochrane

    draws from research in psychology, sociology, biology and anthropology

    the differences between men and women is a complex puzzle with many pieces
  12. Minimalist view
    • the belief that the differences between men and
    • women are few
  13. Maximalist
    the belief that men and women are virtually different species

    often coupled with essentialist view
  14. Wilhelm Wundt
    • credited with founding modern psychology (in 1879 at University of
    • Leipzig)

    • wanted to establish a
    • natural science of the mind to investigate the nature of human thought
    • processes through experimentation
  15. Structuralist approach
    approach to psychology by Wundt and others

    • used chemistry as the
    • model to devise a psychology based on an analytical understanding of the
    • structure of the conscious mind
  16. Wundt and Others
    created structuralist approach

    • believed psychology
    • could not be applied to children, the feebleminded, or species of nonhuman
    • animals
  17. Structuralists
    interested in investigating the "generalized adult mind"

    individual differences were of no concern

    • generalization drawn
    • from data collected from and by men
  18. Where virtually all US psychologists received
    their training
  19. View of German psychology by US psychologists
    found it too limiting and impractical
  20. Functionalism
    • a school of psychology that emphasized how the mind functions rather
    • than its structure

    grew from German psychology into a more practical nature

    • drew a wider variety of subjects into psychological research and
    • theories



    nonhuman animals

    influenced by Darwin and theory of evolution

    • tended to look for
    • biologically determined differences
  21. Areas of interest in functionalist psychology
    issues of adaptability

    issues of intelligence

    • prompted the
    • development of intelligence testing and comparison of individual differences in
    • mental abilities and personality traits
  22. Studies and writings of functionalists
    • demonstrate that women are less intelligent, benefit less from
    • education, have strong maternal instincts, were unlikely to produce examples of
    • success or eminence

    • people not white were
    • also considered less intelligent and less capable
  23. Helen Thompson Woodley

    • contended that the
    • research on sex differences was full of researchers' personal bias, prejudice
    • and sentiments
  24. Leta Stetter Hollingworth
    took a stand against functionalist view of women

    • said that women's
    • potential would never be known until they had the opportunity to choose the
    • lives they would like
  25. When did functionalist view diminish?
  26. Behaviorism
    gained prominence when functionalist view diminished

    • emphasized observable behavior rather than thought processes or
    • instincts

    tough-minded and combative

    interest in research on sex differences sharply decreased

    interested in the areas of learning and memory

    • concentrated on
    • studies with rats as subjects
  27. "womanless" psychology
    • an approach that failed to include women as participants or failed to
    • examine gender-related factors when both men and women participated in research

    • created when
    • psychologists ignored gender
  28. Freudians
    theorists with a psychodynamic orientation

    • had an interest in
    • sex differences during the time when behaviorism dominated
  29. Sigmund Freud
    his work did not originate within psychology

    psychodynamic theory of personality development

    psychoanalytic approach to treatment

    his approach gained popular interest in early 1920's

    • acceptance by
    • academicians came later
  30. Freud's beliefs
    emphasized role of instinct and physiology in personality formation

    hypothesized that instincts provide basic energy for personality

    • hypothesized that the child's perception of anatomical differences
    • between boys and girls is a pivotal event in personality formation

    • looked to early childhood experiences within the family to explain how
    • physiology interacts with experience to influence personality development

    • held negative views
    • about women; felt they were inferior to men both intellectually and morally
  31. Perception of anatomical differences between
    boys and girls
    critical event for Freud

    this knowledge forms the basis for personality differences

    • lead to conflict in family, which is resolved through identification
    • with same-sex parent

    • believed boys
    • experience more conflict and trauma during this development
  32. Freud's theory and feminism

    • inferior, less ethical, more concerned with personal appearance, more
    • self-contemptuous, jealous of men's accomplishments, jealous of men's penises

    • women must accept
    • their femininity or were candidates for therapy
  33. Freud's theory and development of masculinity
    • boys must experience severe anxiety during early childhood and develop
    • hatred for their father

    • boy will be led to identify with his father out of fear and experience
    • advantages of the male role

    • must make a
    • sufficiently complete break with their mothers to become fully masculine
  34. Freud's theory in current day
    continues to capture attention and imagination

    • has been and remains
    • a force in conceptions of sex and gender
  35. Structuralism (emphasis and role of gender)
    understanding the structure of the human mind

    • all minds are
    • equivalent
  36. Functionalism (emphasis and role of gender)
    comparative studies

    developmental studies

    Darwin and evolutionary theory

    understanding the function of the mind

    • sex differences are
    • one type of individual difference
  37. Differential psychology
    gender differences

    ethnic differences

    • european american
    • male norm
  38. Behaviorism (emphasis and role of gender)
    studying behavior in a scientific way

    • behavior varies with
    • individual experience
  39. Psychoanalysis (emphasis and role of gender)
    studying normal and abnormal personality development and functioning

    • biological sex
    • differences and their recognition are motivating forces
  40. The beginning of women's studies
    as a result of political, social and intellectual developments

    • began in 18th century
    • and continue to present
  41. Feminist movement

    prompted development of women's studies

    the "second wave of feminism"

    • grew from civil
    • rights movement
  42. First wave of feminism
    early 20th century

    began with campaign changes in women's roles and legal status

    • focusing on voting
    • rights for women, availability of birth control, ways to improve social and
    • economic status
  43. Prominent changes from feminist movement
    • women's entry into the workforce in record
    • numbers
  44. Liberal feminism
    • included people who wanted to end discrimination
    • based on sex and extend equal rights to women
  45. Radical feminists
    • believed that women have been oppressed by men and that this oppression
    • has served a s a model for racial and class oppression

    • believed the entire
    • social system required major change
  46. Cultural feminism
    advocates social change

    • inspired by Carol Gilligan's In a
    • Difference Voice

    • advocate moving toward an acceptance and appreciation of tradiitonally
    • feminine values

    • believed that many of
    • the world's problems would disappear if they were in charge
  47. Women's studies as an academic discipline
    • developed when women went to universities and
    • colleges to pursue interest in topics related to women
  48. Sex differences
    term used to describe their work

    • objected by those who contend that it carries implications of
    • biological basis for these differences

    • said to have been
    • used too extensively and with too many meanings
  49. Gender
    alternative term to "sex differences"

    proposed by Rhoda Unger

    • describes the traits and behaviors that are regarded by the culture as
    • appropriate to women and men

    social label (not a description of biology)

    • consistent usage has
    • not been used, confusion remains
  50. Sex
    biological differences between men and women
  51. National Council of Women Psychologists
    founded in 1941

    to further the work of female psychologists in the war effort

    became International Council of Women Psychologists in 1944

    • rejected from
    • American Psychological Association
  52. Naomi Weisstein
    • presented "Kinde, Kuche, Kirche' as Scientific Law: Psychology
    • Constructs the Female"

    • argued that psychological research had revealed almost nothing about
    • women because research had been contaminated by biases, wishes and fantasies of
    • male psychologists

    • "present
    • psychology is less than worthless in contributing to a vision which could truly
    • liberate - men as well as women"
  53. Important discovery of 1970s
  54. "humans are gendered beings whose lives and experiences are
    (most likely) influenced by their gender"
  55. Association for Women in Psychology
    group that demonstrated against sex discrimination

    • advocated for an
    • increase in feminist psychological research
  56. Division 35, Society for the Psychology of Women
    for the promotion of women in psychology

    • for the advancement
    • of research on women and issues related to gender
  57. Men's Movement
    1975 men and masculinity conference

    "men as men" rather than nongendered humans

    began during the 19th century women's suffrage movement

    • men felt threats to their masculinity, by women entering the work
    • force, by increasing demands for education

    • lacks cohesion, exists in many different versions with diverse goals
    • and views

    Pleck, Bly and Keen
  58. R.W. Connell

    argued that societal roles constrain men

    • explained that men
    • are necessary for the reform of gender roles
  59. National Organization for Women
    men joined, proclaiming themselves to be feminists
  60. National Organization for Men Against Sexism
    profeminist men's organization

    • works to obliterate
    • racism and prejudice against gay men
  61. Division 51 of APA
    Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity

    joined 1955

    promotes study of how gender roles shape and constrict men's lives

    help men to experience their full human potential

    • erode the definition
    • of masculinity that has inhibited men's development and has contributed to the
    • oppression of others
  62. National coalition for Men
    group that opposes sexism

    sees feminist groups as sexist

    • argue that sexism
    • oppresses men more than women
  63. Variations of the Men's Movement

    promote a return of "the good old days"

    to find a masculine identity

    • to change laws such
    • as those regarding divorce and child custody
  64. Robert Bly and Sam Keen
    • contend that modern society has left men with no easy way to form a
    • masculine identity

    • men lack models and
    • become inappropriately aggressive and poorly fitted to live in society
  65. The straight edge

    • consist of young, single, white men who follow punk rock music but
    • reject drug use, violence and sexual exploitation

    • committed to creating an alternative masculinity that is more
    • compassionate and accepting

    • a version of the
    • men's movement that has spread world wide
  66. The Promise Keepers
    arose during 1990s

    • men with a shared vision of godly manhood - part of neoconservative
    • evangelical Christianity

    urged men to reclaim their position as head of the family

    rejects racism

    • does not accept
    • homosexuality or equal partnerships with women
  67. Catholic Men's Movement
    modeled after the promise keepers

    • supports men who
    • attempt to become more nurturant, involved fathers
  68. Androcentric bias
    psychological characterization in early 20th century

    comparing women to male norm

    lack of diversity allowed men to be used as the standard

    • this makes women
    • appear deficient when they differ from that standard
  69. Women in research
    white, privileged women have constituted the standard

    • when women from other
    • ethnic groups are included, they are compared to White women
  70. Women of color and the feminist movement
    • focused on ways that they experienced oppression
    • and found routes to organize into groups and promote change
  71. Multiracial feminism
    • women of different colors who oppose racism and
    • sexism and interact with one another
  72. Hip hop feminism
    • draws from the energy of hip-hop culture to lead
    • young women to a critical analysis of the sexism and racism that continues in
    • U.S. society
  73. Civil rights movement for Hispanics
    Latina women in US were important part


    • many latina's did not
    • join feminist groups as they were more interested in cultural and ethnic
    • discrimination
  74. First National Chicana Conference

    focus on gender issues rather than racism

    • almost half of the
    • people attended walked out - did not like the topic
  75. Native American Women
    faced racism, sexism and violence from men

    • avoided the word feminist as
    • they received criticism from men for speaking out

    • form groups revolving
    • around prevention of domestic violence and child welfare
  76. Asian American Women
    difficulty identifying themselves as feminist

    criticism of rejecting their heritage

    experienced stereotyping
  77. Nancy Felipe Russo
    • "Feminist psychology is now beyond simply
    • critiquing yesterday's findings. The challenge now is to build a knowledge base
    • of theories, concepts, and methods to examine women's lives in all of their
    • diversity."
  78. Feminist psychologists
    value an inclusive psychology

    • diversity is now a
    • major focus for the women's movement and psychology
  79. Woolley
    variability hypothesis

    said the variability hypothesis is a bunch of crap

    believes men and women to have same variability

    • contradictory with
    • Darwin (who believed men showed more variability)
  80. Variability in genetics
    • genetically, women have more variability because of having two X
    • chromosomes, one from both parents

    • men only have one X
    • chromosome, from father
  81. Equal Pay Act
  82. Civil Rights Act, Title VII

    • race, religion,
    • national origin, sex
  83. Second wave of feminism
    liberal feminists

    radical feminists

    socialist feminists

    cultural feminists
  84. Issues of Inherent biases
    neglect power differentials (*sex is confounded with power)

    assume homogeneity among men/women

    ignore social context
  85. Diversity in Men's Movement
    liberal profeminist perspective

    promasculinist perspective

    socialist perspective

    male spiritualist (mythopoetic) perspective

    promise keepers

    million man march