PSY: Chapter 1 and 2 book

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  1. What are a few of the different methods to gathering information?
    • observation
    • case study
    • interview method
    • experiment
    • correlational research quasi experiment
  2. What are naturalistic observations?
    when things are studied in their own environment
  3. normative information (def)
    the natural age that different behaviors emerge
  4. What are structured observations?
    observations that occur in labs or clinical settings
  5. What is one downfall to a case study?
    they rely a lot on past memory and events that are not always complete or accurate
  6. What are some components to Piaget's clinical method?
    • a type of case study
    • combines observations with careful questioning
    • the reply to a question determines the next question
  7. interview method (def)
    a "self-report" strategy where the subject is questioned in-depth
  8. manipulation (def)
    to manage or influence
  9. What are a few components of experimentation?
    • manipulation
    • independent and dependent variables
    • experimental and control groups
    • random sampling
  10. What is the main goal of correlational research?
    to determine the degree or strength of a relationship and the direction between the two variables
  11. What is longitudinal design
    repeated observation of the same subject over an extended period of time
  12. what is cross-sectional design
    examines subjects of different ages at one point in time
  13. what is the cohort effect?
    historical effect on people of different ages
  14. what is a mixed design
    repetitive testing over a short period of time with an experimental component
  15. What are a few rights that people have when it comes to the ethics of researching child development
    • right to debriefing/counseling
    • right to confidentiality
    • right to prevention of harm
    • right to withdraw at any time
  16. what is classical conditioning
    teaching a response by repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus that does not cause a reflexive response with a natural meaningful stimulus that does cause a response so that the neutral stimulus elicits a reflexive response
  17. Who was a huge proponent of classical conditioning
    Ivan Pavlov and his dogs
  18. who did studies on baby Albert
    John Watson
  19. Who brought up the idea of behaviorism
    B.F. Skinner
  20. what is behaviorism
    focus is on observable behavior (not thoughts or feelings). Behavior is shaped through punishment and reinforcement
  21. what is operant conditioning
    spontaneous behavior is either strengthened or weakened depending on whether it is reinforced by a reward or discouraged by punishment
  22. Who came up with the Social Cognitive Theory
    Albert Bandura
  23. What is the social cognitive theory
    • children learn by observation, imitation, and modeling
    • reinforcement and punishment are very important
  24. what is observational learning
    a process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another rather than through direct experience
  25. what is modeling
    a person who engages in (usually new) behavior that is observed and imitated by another person
  26. What is self-efficacy
    the belief that one can master a particular situation and bring a favorable outcome
  27. Who came up with psychosexual theory
    Sigmund Freud
  28. according the Freud what are our two main drives
    • sexual (libido)
    • aggresive
  29. accordinging the Freud what are the three parts of the personality
    • id
    • ego
    • superego
  30. (Freud) what is the id
    basic instincts that must be controlled (sex and aggression)
  31. (Freud) what is the ego
    practicial, rational part (external)
  32. (Freud) what is the superego
    conscience, or mediator between ego and id
  33. (Freud) what are the 5 stages of psychosexual development
    • oral
    • anal
    • phallic
    • latency
    • genital
  34. (Freud) what can cause maladjustment
    a child getting "fixated" in one stage
  35. What are the three examples of defense mechanisms (Freud)
    • repression
    • regression
    • rationalization
  36. (Freud) what is the definition of defense mechanisms
    unconscious way that the "ego" deals with anxiety
  37. repression (def)
  38. regression (def)
    resorting to immature behavior
  39. rationalization (def)
    finding "valid" reasons for an inappropriate behavior
  40. Who came up with Psychosocial theory
    Erik Erikson
  41. definition of psychosocial theory
    8 developmental stages when the self and society interact to resolve conflicts and disharmony
  42. What are the 8 stages of the psychosocial theory
    • trust vs. mistrust
    • automy vs. shame
    • initiative vs. guilt
    • industry vs. inferiority
    • intimacy vs. isolation
    • generativity vs. stagnation
    • ego integrity vs. despair
  43. cognitive theories (def)
    emphasize the mental processes by which knowledge is acquired, elaborated, retrieved, and used to solve problems
  44. Who came up with the idea that children develop mental structures which help them coordinate and organize information in a systematic way
    Jean Piaget
  45. (piaget) what is another word for mental structures
    schemes or schemata
  46. what does assimilation mean
    put into the existing/same schema
  47. what does accommodation mean
    put into a new schema
  48. What are the 4 stages of Piaget's theory
    • sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concrete operational
    • formal-operational
  49. What are two forms of adaption
    • assimilation
    • accommodation
  50. what is the sensorimote stage
    sense adn motor skills/reflexes
  51. what is the preoperational stage
    • prelogical thought, use of some symbols
    • can't mentally reverse; can't do operations
  52. what is the concrete operational stage
    • can do operations
    • mentally combine, transform, or seperate info mentally in a logical way
  53. what is the formal operational stage
    • abstract thought
    • hypothical- deducative reasoning
  54. Who came up with sociocultural theory
    Les Vygotsky
  55. What is the sociocultural theory
    children learn in a fultural context through social interaction
  56. what is scaffolding
    an instructional process in which the teacher continually adjusts the amount and type of support she offers as the child develops in skill
  57. What is the Zone of Prozimal Development
    the area between what a chld can do on their own and what they could do with help
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PSY: Chapter 1 and 2 book
2012-09-08 18:50:42

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