AP Bio 53

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AP Bio 53
2012-09-08 12:25:17
AP Bio 53

AP Bio chapter 53
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  1. population
    a group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area
  2. the density of a population
    is the number of individuals per unit area or volume(aka water living things)
  3. Dispersion
    is the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
  4. what are the 4 ways # of population can change
    Birth, Death (mortality), Immigration, and emigration (going away)
  5. territoriality
    the defense of a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals
  6. Demography
    the study of the vital statistics of populations and how they change over time
  7. life tables
    age-specific summaries of the survival pattern of a population
  8. cohort
    a group of individuals of the same age
  9. survivorship curve
    • a graphic method of representing some of the data in a life table. it is a plot of the proportion or number in a cohort still alive at each age
  10. reproductive table(fertility schedule)
    is an age specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population
  11. what does N t  ^N and ^t represent
    population size, time, change in population size, and the time interval over which we are evaluating population growth.
  12. what does B and D repreasent
    births in a population and deaths in a population
  13. equation for change in population size in a given time
  14. per capita death rate (symbolized by m) and equation
    an ables us to calculate the expected number of deaths per unit time in a population of any size. D=mN per year
  15. per capita birth rate (symbolized by b) and equation
    the number of offspring produced per unit time by average member of the population. B=bN per year
  16. population growth equation using per capita birth and death
  17. per capita rate of increase or r
  18. Zero population growth (ZPG)
    occurs when the per capita birth and death rates are equal (r=0)
  19. exponential population growth
     also shown a  or  extra credit question? Which on of the equations above will grow faster? (page 1177)
  20. carrying capacity
    symbolized by as the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain
  21. logistic population growth model def and equation
    the per capita rate of increase approaches zero as the carrying capacity is reached  
  22. Allee affect (named after W.C. Allee of the University of Chicago who first described it)
    in which individuals may have a more difficalt time surviving or reproducing if the population size is too small
  23. life history def
    the traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and survival
  24. life history's 3 main variables
    when reproduction begins, how often the organism reproduces, and how many offspring are produced per reproductive epsiode
  25. semelparity
    "one-shot" pattern of big-bang reproduction examples of speacies that do this is the Pacific salmon and seasonal plants
  26. iteroparity
    repeated reproduction aka US this spiecise tipicaly care for their young 
  27. K-selection
    selection traits that are sensitive to population density and are favored at high densities or density-dependent (close to carrying capasity)
  28. r-selection
    selection for traits that maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments or density-independent (below carrying capacity)
  29. density independent
    a birth rate or death rate that does NOT change with population size or density
  30. density dependent
    a death rate that rises as population density rises as is a birth rate that falls with rising density 
  31. Mechanisms of Density Depedent regulations
    see page 1183 cause i'm lazy 
  32. population dynamics
    population fluctuations from year to year or place to place are influenced by many factors and in turn affect other species including our own
  33. demographic transition
    the movement from high birth and death rates toward low birth and death rates