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results in each gamete’s having only half the genetic material of all other normal cells in the body.
The idea that there is an emergence of new structures and functions during development.
results from the union of two gametes
After implantation, cells differentiate via ______
barrier against some, but not all toxins and infectious agents
protective membrane that surrounds the amnion
membrane filled with fluid in which the fetus floats, provides a protective buffer for the fetus
amnion (amniotic sac)
Delivers blood to developing organism
Removes waste from developing organism
permits food and oxygen to reach developing
Permits waste products to be carried away
Semi-permeable: Will not allow blood to pass through
U-shaped groove formed from ectoderm cells
This tube will become the brain and spinal cord
becomes nervous system and skin
becomes digestive system, lungs, urinary tract and glands.
becomes muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs
two eggs released into fallopian tube at the same time and are fertilized by different sperm.
originates from splitting in half of inner cell mass, resulting in development of genetically identical individuals
The outer cells, called the _______ provide nourishment and protection.
The inner cell mass, called the ______, eventually forms into the embryo.
By 4th day after conception, zygote arranges itself into a hollow sphere of cells, called the _____
Arms, legs, face, organs, muscles all develop
Heart begins beating
Growth and finishing period
Conception – 2 weeks
Fertilization of egg
Implantation of zygote
the movement of cells from their point of origin to somewhere else in the embryo
results in the proliferation of cells
spontaneous abortion is also known as
the fetus decreases responses to repeated or continued stimulation, a simple form of learning called _____
___% or more of conceptions result in very early miscarriages
environmental agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development.
Many agents cause damage only if exposure during a sensitive period in development
Most show a does-response relation
the impact of a given agent may not be apparent for many years
during pregnancy linked to retarded growth and low birth weight
is associated with mental retardation, facial deformity and other problems.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Sudden infant death syndrome
exposed children have reported cognitive and social deficits
is suspected of affecting memory, learning, and visual skills after birth
dilation and effacement of the cervix transition
pushing, birth of the baby
delivery of the placenta
The apgar scale
and when is it tested?
Tested 1 minute after birth and 5 minutes after birth
Death during the first year after birth
infants weighing less than 5.5 pounds
low birth weight
LBW infants born at or before 35 weeks after conception
Premature or preterm
when birth weight is substantially less than norm for their gestational age
Small for gestation age
6 stages of arousal:
- active sleep -8 hrs
- quiet sleep -8 hrs
- criying -2 hrs
- active awake -2.5 hrs
- alert awake - 2.5 hrs
- drowsing- 1 hr
an active sleep state assoc. w/ dreaming in adults; characterized by quick, jerky eye mvts under closed lids
a quiet or deep sleep state characterized by absence of motor activity or eye mvts and by regular, slow brain waves, breathing and heart rate
Hormones play a crucial role in sexual differentiation
All human fetuses can develop either male or female genitalia, depending on the presence or absence of testosterone
transforms the embryo’s unspecialized stem cells into different types of cells (specialization)
genetically programmed cell death, also enables prenatal development
Areas near the head develop at a more rapid pace than those farther away
The head develops before the body
The hands develop before the feet.
_____ promotes the normal development of the palate and aids in the maturation of the digestive system.
Swallowing amniotic fluid
Prenatal visual experience is negligible.
Fetus experiences tactile stimulation as a result of its own activity, and tastes and smells the amniotic fluid.
It responds to sounds from at least the 6th month of gestation.
Sensory structures in early development
Newborn infants have been shown to recognize rhymes and stories presented before birth.
Newborns also prefer smells, tastes, and sound patterns are familiar because of prenatal exposure.
Can reduce risk of ____ by
Putting babies to sleep on their backs rather than their stomachs
Using firm mattresses and no pillows as bedding
Avoiding wrapping infants in lots of blankets or clothing.
The age, nutrition, disease, and emotional state of the mother have an impact on prenatal development.
Many aspects of the birth experience have _____ and increase the likelihood of survival for newborn.
All cultures pursue the dual goals of safeguarding the survival and health of the mother and child and ensuring the social integration of the new person.
______ are associated with high rates of infant mortality
poverty and lack of health insurance
Special infant stimulation
Interventions for preterm infants
successful development in the face of multiple developmental hazards
brain activity during REM sleep in the fetus and newborn makes up for natural deprivation of external stimuli and facilitates
the early dvpmt of visual system.
Constitutes 50% of newborn’s total sleep time
Declines rapidly to only 20% by 3 or 4 years of age
Active sleep (REM)
include swaddling, involve moderately intense and continuous or repetitive stimulation.
Effective soothing techniques
Parents should seek social support and relief from frustration- and remember that ___typically ends w/in a few months.