DEP- Chapter 2

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Rburk022
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169457
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DEP- Chapter 2
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2012-10-10 17:36:55
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Prenatal Development
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Chapter 2: Prenatal Development
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  1. results in each gamete’s having only half the genetic material of all other normal cells in the body.
    meiosis
  2. The idea that there is an emergence of new structures and functions during development.
    epigenisis
  3. results from the union of two gametes
    conception
  4. After implantation, cells differentiate via ______
    gastrulation
  5. barrier against some, but not all toxins and infectious agents
    placenta
  6. protective membrane that surrounds the amnion
    chorion
  7. membrane filled with fluid in which the fetus floats, provides a protective buffer for the fetus
    amnion (amniotic sac)
  8. Delivers blood to developing organism

    Removes waste from developing organism
    Umbilical cord
  9. permits food and oxygen to reach developing
    organism
     
    Permits waste products to be carried away

    Semi-permeable: Will not allow blood to pass through
    Placenta
  10. U-shaped groove formed from ectoderm cells

    This tube will become the brain and spinal cord
    Neural tube
  11. becomes nervous system and skin
    ectoderm
  12. becomes digestive system, lungs, urinary tract and glands.
    endoderm
  13. becomes muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs
    mesoderm
  14. two eggs released into fallopian tube at the same time and are fertilized by different sperm.
    fraternal twins
  15. originates from splitting in half of inner cell mass, resulting in development of genetically identical individuals
    identical twins
  16. The outer cells, called the _______ provide nourishment and protection.
    trophoblast
  17. The inner cell mass, called the ______, eventually forms into the embryo.
    embryonic disk
  18. By 4th day after conception, zygote arranges itself into a hollow sphere of cells, called the _____
    blastocyst
  19. Weeks 3-8
    Arms, legs, face, organs, muscles all develop
    Heart begins beating
    Embryonic
  20. Weeks 9-38
    Growth and finishing period
    fetal
  21. Conception – 2 weeks
    Fertilization of egg
    Implantation of zygote
    Germinal
  22. fertilized egg
    zygote
  23. the movement of cells from their point of origin to somewhere else in the embryo
    cell migration
  24. results in the proliferation of cells
    cell division
  25. spontaneous abortion is also known as
    miscarriage
  26. the fetus decreases responses to repeated or continued stimulation, a simple form of learning called _____
     habituation
  27. ___% or more of conceptions result in very early miscarriages
    45
  28. environmental agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development.

    Many agents cause damage only if exposure during a sensitive period in development

    Most show a does-response relation
    Terratogens
  29. the impact of a given agent may not be apparent for many years
    sleeper effects
  30. during pregnancy linked to retarded growth and low birth weight
    cigarette smoking
  31. is associated with mental retardation, facial deformity and other problems.
    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
  32. SIDS
    Sudden infant death syndrome
  33. exposed children have reported cognitive and social deficits
    Cocaine
  34. is suspected of affecting memory, learning, and visual skills after birth
    marijuana
  35. dilation and effacement of the cervix transition
    Stage 1
  36. pushing, birth of the baby
    stage 2
  37. delivery of the placenta
    stage 3
  38. The apgar scale

    and when is it tested?
    • Appearance
    • Pulse
    • Grimace
    • Activity
    • Respiration

    Tested 1 minute after birth and 5 minutes after birth
  39. Death during the first year after birth
    infant moratlity
  40. infants weighing less than 5.5 pounds
    low birth weight
  41. LBW infants born at or before 35 weeks after conception
    Premature or preterm
  42. when birth weight is substantially less than norm for their gestational age
    Small for gestation age
  43. oxygen deprivation
    anoxia
  44. 6 stages of arousal:
    • active sleep -8 hrs
    • quiet sleep -8 hrs
    • criying -2 hrs
    • active awake -2.5 hrs
    • alert awake - 2.5 hrs
    • drowsing- 1 hr
  45. an active sleep state assoc. w/ dreaming in adults; characterized by quick, jerky eye mvts under closed lids
    REM sleep
  46. a quiet or deep sleep state characterized by absence of motor activity or eye mvts and by regular, slow brain waves, breathing and heart rate
    Non-REM sleep
  47. True/False

    Hormones play a crucial role in sexual differentiation

    All human fetuses can develop either male or female genitalia, depending on the presence or absence of testosterone
    True
  48. transforms the embryo’s unspecialized stem cells into different types of cells (specialization)
    cell differentiation
  49. genetically programmed cell death, also enables prenatal development
    Apoptosis
  50. Areas near the head develop at a more rapid pace than those farther away

    The head develops before the body

    The hands develop before the feet.
    Cephalocaudal development
  51. _____ promotes the normal development of the palate and aids in the maturation of the digestive system.
    Swallowing amniotic fluid
  52. Prenatal visual experience is negligible.

    Fetus experiences tactile stimulation as a result of its own activity, and tastes and smells the amniotic fluid.

    It responds to sounds from at least the 6th month of gestation.
    Sensory structures in early development
  53. T/F
    Newborn infants have been shown to recognize rhymes and stories presented before birth.

    Newborns also prefer smells, tastes, and sound patterns are familiar because of prenatal exposure.
    True/ True
  54. Can reduce risk of ____ by

    Not smoking

    Putting babies to sleep on their backs rather than their stomachs

    Using firm mattresses and no pillows as bedding

    Avoiding wrapping infants in lots of blankets or clothing.
    SIDS
  55. T/F

    The age, nutrition, disease, and emotional state of the mother have an impact on prenatal development.
    True
  56. Many aspects of the birth experience have _____ and increase the likelihood of survival for newborn.
    Adaptive value
  57. T/F
    All cultures pursue the dual goals of safeguarding the survival and health of the mother and child and ensuring the social integration of the new person.
    True
  58. ______ are associated with high rates of infant mortality
    poverty and lack of health insurance
  59. Isolette
    Respirator
    Feeding tube
    Intravenous medication
    Special infant stimulation
    Infant massage
    kangaroo care
    Parent training
    Interventions for preterm infants
  60. successful development in the face of multiple developmental hazards
    Developmental resilience
  61. brain activity during REM sleep in the fetus and newborn makes up for natural deprivation of external stimuli and facilitates
    the early dvpmt of visual system.
    Autostimulation theory
  62. Constitutes 50% of newborn’s total sleep time

    Declines rapidly to only 20% by 3 or 4 years of age
    Active sleep (REM)
  63. include swaddling, involve moderately intense and continuous or repetitive stimulation.
    Effective soothing techniques
  64. Parents should seek social support and relief from frustration- and remember that ___typically ends w/in a few months.
    Colic

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