Dental Emergencies

Card Set Information

Author:
edgarl
ID:
169488
Filename:
Dental Emergencies
Updated:
2012-09-07 16:36:45
Tags:
Test
Folders:

Description:
syncope-allergies
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user edgarl on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Syncope
    Sudden temporary loss of consciousness; faint
  2. Coma
    unconsciousness; no arousal
  3. Anoxia
    Total lack of O2
  4. Hypoxia
    Reduced supply of O2
  5. Pathophysiology of Unconsciousness
    • Inadequate cerebral circulation
    • O2 deprivation
    • Changes in Blood Quality
    • Psychological changes
    • CNS changes
    • Poor physical condition
    • Sign of underlying condition
    • May be associated with Stress
  6. Inadequate Cerebral Circulation
    • Reduces blood to the brain which cause reduced O2 to the brain
    • It is the Most Common Mechanism of unsciousness
    • <30ml blood/100g brain tissue
  7. O2 Deprivation
    • Brain needs Glucose & O2
    • 65% glucose intake & 20% O2 intake
    • 20% total blood circulation must reach the brain every minute.
  8. Blood Quality Changes that can cause unconsciousness
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Allergic reactions
    • Hyperventilation
    • Drugs
  9. CNS Changes for Unconsciousness
    • Seizsures
    • CVA (stroke)
  10. P-A-B-C-D
    • Management for unconsciousness
    • Position
    • Airway
    • Breathing
    • Circulation
    • Definitive Management
  11. Hyperventilation
    • 22-40 brpm
    • N=10-16 brpm
    • Increased PaO2 and decreased PaCO2
    • Ages:15-40
  12. PaO2
    Arterial O2 blood gas level
  13. PaCO2
    Arterial CO2 blood gas level
  14. Hypocapnia
    • Abnormally low PaCO2 level
    • N=40mmHg
    • Hypocapnia=25-30mmHg
  15. Respriatory Alkalosis
    Increased blood pH level
  16. Some reasons for hyperventilation
    • High altitudes
    • Stress/anxiety
    • Pregnancy
    • CNS stimulants
  17. Respiratory Disorders
    • NONINFECTIOUS
    • -Obstructive Airway Diseases
    • -Pulmonary Embolism
    • -Myasthenia Gravis; autoimmune that effects breathing muscles
    • INFECTIOUS
    • -Pneumonia
    • -Legionnaires Disease; fever and pneumonia
    • -TB
  18. Asthma
    • Reactive Airway Disease; recurring
    • Difficulty breathing bc broncial constriction
    • Increasing problem in children
  19. Asthma Triggers
    • Cold Temps
    • Respiratory infections
    • exercise
    • stress
    • allergens/food
    • drugs
  20. Asthma Classifications
    • Extrinsic: allergic & IgE; most common (35% of adults and many children)
    • -Drug Induced: ingestion
    • Intrinsic: nonallergic; endogenous(from within a person; 30% of asthma cases)
    • -Exercise Induced
    • Infectious: inflammation from infection
  21. Status Ashthmaticus
    Continuous asthma attack withhout relief caused by any classification and can be life threatening
  22. Pathophysiology of Asthma
    • Smooth muscle around bronchial contracts
    • Increased mucuos production causing bronchial plugging and dehydration
    • Alveolar Hypoventilation
    • Hypercapnia: CO2 retention
  23. Asthma Treatment
    • Mild: stop, position, calm, self adminster bronchodilator, if relief resume treatment
    • Severe: stop, position, calm, self adminster bronchodilator, O2 4-6L/min, No relief after inhalar 1mg Epi, still no relief call 911
  24. COPD
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • Chronic Bronchitis
    • Emphysema
  25. Chronic Bronchitis
    • Prolonged exposure to irritants
    • Excessive mucus secretions
    • Hypercapnia
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • Right ventricular hypertrophy
  26. Emphysema
    • Destruction of alveoli
    • Decrease elasticity recoil (air trapping, hyperinflation)
    • Increased expiration difficulty
    • Thin appearance
  27. What depends on the severity of an allergic reaction?
    • Amount of Allergen
    • Rate of exposure
    • Route of exposure
  28. Type I Allergy
    • Immediate hypersensitivity <60 mins
    • Caused by IgE
    • Acute; can be life threatening
    • Generalized (anaphylaxis) or Local (hives etc..)
  29. Type II Allergy
    Cell death (Cytolytic)
  30. Type III Allergy
    Not IgE mediated, but have anaphylaxis type S&S (anaphylactoid reactions)
  31. Type IV Allergy
    • Delayed hypersensitivity >12 hrs can take up to 48 hrs
    • May be difficult to diagnose cause of time frame
    • inflammation develops
    • generalized or local
  32. Sensitizing Dose
    • First exposure
    • substance enters the body and antibodies are produced
    • no reactions this time
  33. Challenging Dose
    • Later Exposure
    • Mast cells and Basophils undergo degranlation
    • Body over reacts
    • Histamine is released
    • The quicker the reaction the more severe it is
  34. Histamines effect on smooth muscle
    • Relaxes vascular smooth muscle
    • Contracts nonvascular smooth muscle like GI and uterus
  35. Uriticaria
    • Hives
    • Itch and painful
    • Caused by contact or ingestion
  36. Angioedema
    • Localized non-inflammatory swelling from an allergy
    • facial, tongue, throat
  37. Drugs to manage allergy
    • Epinephrine
    • Antihistamines
    • Steroids

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview