Ecology and Biomes (Exam 1)

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Ecology and Biomes (Exam 1)
2012-12-01 15:07:50
Ecology Biomes

ecology review
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  1. 2 Factors of classifying an ecosystem
    • 1. Average annual precipitation
    • 2. Average annual temperature
  2. Define Ecology
    The scientific relationship between organisms and their environment
  3. Characteristics of Tropical Wet Forest
    • 1. low variation in temperature
    • 2. always wet
    • 3. high biodiversity
    • 4. high productivity
  4. Define Epiphyte
    plant growing on another plant
  5. Characterisrics of Subtropical Desert
    • 1. seasonal variation in temperature
    • 2. low precipitation
    • 3. low biodiversity
    • 4. low productivity
  6. Define Subsidence
    land sinks "sink holes"
  7. Define Rain Shadow
    area in shadow od mountains being hit by dry air coming over mountains and being blocked from moisture by mountains
  8. Characteristics of Grasslands
    • 1. seasonal variation in temperature (cooler)
    • 2. low precipitation (> desert)
    • 3. intermediate biodiversity
    • 4. intermediate productivty
  9. Characteristics of Temperate Deciduous Forest
    • 1. seasonal variation in temperature (cooler)
    • 2. intermediate to high precipitation
    • 3. intermediate biodiversity
    • 4. intermediate productivity
  10. Characteristics of Boreal Forest (Tiaga)
    • 1. seasonal variation in temperature (short summer)
    • 2. intermediate precipitaion (mostly frozen)
    • 3. intermediate to low biodiversity
    • 4. intermediate to low productivity
  11. Characteristics of Arctic Tundra
    • 1. seasonal variation in temperature (low, below freezing most of year)
    • 2. low precipitation
    • 3. low biodiversity
    • 4. low productivity
  12. 3 Types of Aquatic Ecosystems
    • 1. lakes & ponds
    • 2. wetlands
    • 3. streams
  13. Difference Between Lakes and Ponds
    • lakes: light can NOT reach the bottom
    • ponds: light can  reach the bottom
  14. Define the Photic Zone
    depth where there is enough light for photosythesis to occur
  15. Define the Aphotic Zone
    not enough light for photosythesis to occur
  16. Define the Littoral Zone
    edge of lake with emergent vegetation
  17. Define the Limnetic Zone
    area of lake there algae, fish, and zooplankton are able to live
  18. Define the Profundal Zone
    low oxygen, lower light, fish can swim this zone
  19. Define the Benthic Zone
    bottom of pond where scavengers & decomposers live 
  20. 3 Types of Wetlands
    • 1. marshes
    • 2. bogs
    • 3. swamps
  21. Characteristics of Marsh
    have non - woody plants, good water current running through 
  22. Characteristics of Swamp
    woody plants, low current
  23. Characteristics of Bog
    stagnant, acidic, very slow to no decomposition
  24. Define the Source of a Stream
    beginning of a stream, fast-moving, cold, high oxygen
  25. Define an Estuary
    point where fresh and salt water mix
  26. What are the 2 Ocean Provinces?
    • 1. Benthic province
    • 2. Pelagic province
  27. Name and describe the two Benthic province life zones
    • 1. Interdidal Zone: where the tide comes in and out 
    • 2. Abyssal Plain: the bottom of the ocean, high water pressure, cold, scavengers, no light, includes ocean floor at higher elevation
  28. Name and describe the two Pelagic province life zones 
    • 1. Neritic Zone: water that sits on continental shelf, most productive part of ocean, major fisheries
    • 2. Oceanic Zone: all open water not on continental shelf, one of most unproductive sections of ocean
  29. Define upwelling
    where nutrients come from bottom of ocean to surface
  30. Name and Define the 2 Types of Food Chains 
    • 1. Grazer: begins with photosythentic organisms
    • 2. Decomposer: begins with waste and remains
  31. Define Food Web
    series of interconnected food chains
  32. What are the 2 Phases of Nutrient Cycling?
    • 1. Organismic: tied up in the body of an organism
    • 2. Environmental: can be sedimentary or gaseous
  33. Define Food Chain
    depiction of the trophic structure of a community; a portrait of who eats whom.
  34. How is Carbon returned to atmosphere
    decomposition, respiration
  35. How are humans impacting the Carbon Cycle
    burning fossil fuels, deforestaion
  36. What are examples of Greenhouse Gases
    CO2, Methane, H2O vapor
  37. 2 Factors to Determoning Freshwater Ecosystems
    • 1. water depth
    • 2. How fast water is moving
  38. Global Warming
    accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activity (global climate chage)
  39. 2 groups of organisms that do nitrogen fixation
    • 1. bacteria that live in nodules on roots of legumes
    • 2. cynobacteria in aquatic ecosystems (blue-green algae)
  40. How is Nitrogen returned to atmosphere?
    dentrified by bacteria and released
  41. How are humans impacting the Nitrogen Cycle
    burning fossil fuels, municipal sewage treatment, large scale livestock production waste, over use of fertilizers