SA Med E1/1

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SA Med E1/1
2012-09-07 19:39:32
SA Med E1

SA Med E1/1
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  1. In what parts of the US is Histoplasma capsulatum usually found?
    River valleys of central US
  2. What is the main route of infection of Histoplasmosis?
  3. What cells does Histoplasma capsulatum infect?
    Intracellularly macrophages (pulmonary)
  4. What type of response does a Histoplasma infection cause to the tissue it is infecting?
    Granulomatous (pyogranulomatous)
  5. What is the most common form of Histoplasma infection?
    Subclinical (self limiting)
  6. What is seen in the least common form (Acute pulmonary) of histoplasmosis?
    Moderately enlarged hilar lymph nodes
  7. What are the two most common clinical signs associated with the intestinal form of histoplasmosis?
    • Intractable diarrhea
    • Progressive weight loss
  8. What is the most common form of histoplasmosis in cats?
    Disseminated form (extrapulmonary)
  9. What is required for a definitive diagnosis of Histoplasmosis?
    Cytology or histopathology (ID organism)
  10. In histoplasma cytology, what results from shrinkage of cytoplasm from cell wall during fixation?
    Clear halo or "pseudocapsule" develops
  11. What is the preferred treatment for Histoplasmosis?
  12. What treatment for Histoplasmosis is better for penetration of eyes and CNS?
  13. In what parts of the US is Blastomyces dermatitidis usually found?
    River valleys of central US (within 1/4 mile of water)
  14. What is the primary source of infection of Blastomycosis?
  15. What are the four most common sites in dogs of extrapulmonary dissemination of blastomycosis?
    • Lymph nodes
    • Skin
    • Eyes
    • Bones
  16. What is necessary for definitive diagnosis of blastomycosis?
    ID of organism
  17. What type of serology provides a better presumptive diagnosis of blastomycosis?
    Antigen testing
  18. What is the best treatment for blastomycosis?
  19. What is the best treatment of ocular or CNS forms of blastomycosis?
  20. Where in the US is Coccidiomycosis usually seen?
    Dry desert southwest
  21. Where is the disseminated form of coccidiomycosis common in the dog? cat?
    • Dog - bones
    • Cat - Skin
  22. What is usually necessary for presumptive diagnosis of coccidiomycosis? Definitive diagnosis?
    • Presumptive - Serology
    • Definitive - ID organism
  23. What type of treatment may be required for disseminated form of coccidiomycosis?
    Lifelong -azole therapy
  24. What is the most common systemic fungal disease in cats?
  25. How are most cats infected with cryptococcus?
    Dissemination from nasal cavity
  26. What clinical signs are commonly seen with a cryptococcus nasal infection in cats?
    • Firm swellings over bridge of nose
    • Stertorous breathing
  27. What are the preferred sites of cryptococcal dissemination?
    • Skin
    • CNS
    • eyes
  28. How is a presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis acquired?
    Detection of capsular antigen
  29. What organism causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the dog?
    Rickettsia rickettsii
  30. The majority of dogs infected with RMSF develop what type of disease?
  31. What are some common clinical signs associated with RMSF?
    • Fever
    • Depression
  32. What is often the only or most prominent feature of RMSF?
    Neutrophilic polyarthritis (inflammation of the joints)
  33. What is a consistent finding in the CBC of a dog with RMSF?
  34. How is RMSF diagnosed?
    • Positive serum antibody titers (IFA)
    • AND clinical signs
  35. What is the most commonly used antibiotic to treat RMSF and canine ehrlichiosis?
  36. What organism is the cause of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis?
    E. canis
  37. What is the most prominent clinical sign associated with canine ehrlichiosis (acute phase)?
  38. What is the main problem associated with canine ehrlichiosis (chronic phase)?
    Immune reactions
  39. What are the most common CBC findings of a dog with canine ehrlichiosis?
    • Anemia
    • Thrombocytopenia
  40. How do you obtain a presumptive diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis?
    • Positive serology
    • AND clinical signs
  41. What organism is the cause of canine anaplasmosis?
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum
  42. What organism is the cause of Feline Infectious Anemia?
    Mycoplasma haemofelis
  43. Are cats able to completely clear a Mycoplasma haemofelis infection?
    • No, (organisms remain in macrophages)
    • Remain carriers
  44. What is the best drug to treat a Mycoplasma haemofelis infection?
  45. What percent of seropositive dogs for Borrelia burgdorferi are asymptomatic?
  46. How long must a tick be attached to a dog for transmission of Borrelia infection?
    48 hours
  47. Does ELISA or IFA differentiate b/t dogs with lyme disease and dogs with earlier exposure or vaccine?
  48. What disease is difficult to distinguish from Lyme disease?
    Immune-mediated polyarthritis
  49. What antibody test distinguishes b/t natural exposure and vaccine induced antibodies for Lyme disease?
    C6 antibody test (SNAP 3Dx)
  50. What two leptospira organisms usually attribute to canine leptospirosis?
    • L. pomona
    • L. grippotyphosa
  51. What types of dogs are most commonly affected by Leptospirosis?
    • Male, large breed outdoor dogs
    • (German Shepherd or mix)
  52. What can increase infection rates of Leptospirosis?
    Wet periods of rainfall or flooding
  53. What organs are the main targets of Leptospira organisms?
    • Kidneys
    • Liver
  54. What disease is the most common cause of Acute Renal Failure/Nephritis?
  55. If a dog has acute renal failure what should always be considered?
    Serology for Leptospirosis
  56. What monoclonal antibody titer is suggestive of Leptospirosis? Highly Indicative?
    • Suggestive - 1:400 or greater
    • Highly Indicative - 1:800 or greater
  57. What treatment will reduce or eliminate leptospires being transmitted through urine of infected dog?
    Penicillin treatment
  58. What clinical signs are associated with Brucellosis? 4
    • Generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly
    • Reproductive failure
    • Diskospondylitis
    • Uveitis