Plant Science Chapter 6

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Plant Science Chapter 6
2012-10-08 10:10:45
plant science chapter

plant science chapter 6
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  1. Define Cytology
    branch of biology dealing with the study of cell components and their function.
  2. Characteristics of Plant Cells and what they lack
    cell wall, chloroplast, mitochondria, LACK: centrioles, lysosomes
  3. Define Protoplast
    living unit of cell within the cell wall
  4. Define Pits
    pores that allow movement throught the cell wall
  5. Describe the Primary Cell Wall layer
    Contains cellulose strands, has matrix of hemicellulose, pectins, and proteins. 
  6. Describe the Sceondary Cell Wall Layer
    primarily cellulose and hemicellulose, secondary thickening of lignin, provides support, protection, and conduction.
  7. Define Lignin
    complex organic molecule found in secondary cell walls
  8. Define the Middle Lamella
    composed of pectins and proteins, occurs between walls of adjacent cells
  9. Describe the Plasma Membrane
    composed of phospholipid bilayer
  10. Describe the 2 Different Types of Proteins
    • 1. Integral Proteins: go through lipid bilayer
    • 2. Peripheral Proteins: on inner & outter surfaces of bilayer
  11. Define Cytoplasm
    a viscous fluid surrounded by plasma membrane
  12. Define Cytoplasmic Streaming
    flow of organelles
  13. Major Organelles in Plant Cells
    • 1. Plastids
    • 2. Mitochondria
    • 3. Ribosomes
    • 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • 5. Golgi Apparatus
    • 6. Nucleus
    • 7. Vacuoles
  14. Morphology
    study of form, structure & development
  15. Histology
    study of microscopic structure of plants
  16. Gymnosperms
    bare-seed plants not coated by pistil, non-flowering
  17. Angiosperms
    female gamete protected within an enclosed ovary, flowering plant
  18. Name and Define the Two Classes of Angiosperms
    • 1. Monoctyledons: "monocots" have an embryo with one cotyledon. (Corn)
    • 2. Dicotyledons: "dicots" have an embryo with two cotyledons (Bean)
  19. Radicle 
    primary root
  20. Plumule
    primary shoot
  21. Coleorhiza 
    sheath that surrounds the radicle and through which young developing root emerges
  22. Adventitious Roots
    roots other than those from radicle also referred to as anchor, brace, or prop roots, give added support to plant.
  23. Coleoptile
    sheath-like leaf that protects emerging plumule
  24. Pistillate Flowers
    female flower having pistils but no stamens 
  25. Staminate Flowers
    male flowers having stamens but no pistils 
  26. Caryopsis
    small, one-seeded dry fruit
  27. Hypocotyl
    stem region above the roots and below the two cotyledons
  28. Apical
    growing point that lies between the 2 cotyledons of a dicot flanked by two opposite primary foliage leaves
  29. Epicotyl
    stem region just above the cotyledons and below the first trifoiate leaves
  30. ATP
    adenosine triphosphate, energy-rich compound produced from mitochondria
  31. Tonoplast
    membrane surrounding vacuole
  32. Meristematic Tissue
    comprised of actively dividing cells that develop and differentiate into other tissues and organs
  33. What are the Common Categories of Meristematic Tissues
    apical meristems, shoot, root, subapical meristems, intercalary meristems, lateral meristems, vascular meristems, cork cambium
  34. What is the Apical Meristem's Function
    to produce new buds and leaves in uniform pattern / epidermis, cortex, primary xylem and phloem, central pith of stem
  35. What is the Subapical Meristem's Function
    to produce new cells a few micrometers behind apical meristem (growth in height of plant)
  36. What is the Intercalary Meristem's Function
    (often found in grasses) to produce new cells across a stem or leaf (expand and elongate plant)
  37. What is the Lateral Meristem's Function
    (buds) found in the axils of leaves on a stem (dormant untill apical meristem removed) responsible for secondary growth (vascular cambium & cork cambium)
  38. What does the Vascular Cambium Produce
    • 1. new xylem (water & mineral conducting elements)
    • 2. new phloem (photosynthetic conducting elements)
  39. What does the Cork Cambium Produce
    chiefly bark
  40. What are the Two Types of Permanent Tissues
    • 1. simple: uniform, composed of only 1 type of cell
    • examples - epidermis, cork
    • 2. complex: mixed, containing different types of cells
    • examples - xylem, phloem
  41. Epidermis
    single exterior layer of cells that protects stems, leaves, flowers, roots.
  42. Xylem
    tissue that conducts water and dissolved minerals from roots to all parts or plant
  43. What are cells found in the Xylem
    vessels, tracheids, fibers, parenchyma
  44. Phloem
    conducts food and metabolites from the leaves to the stem, flowers, roots, and storage organs 
  45. What are cells found in the Phloem
    sieve tubes, sieve tube members, companion cells, fibers, parenchyma
  46. Plant Tissue Types
    meristematic, dermal, ground, vascular
  47. Two Types of Root Systems
    • 1. fibrous system
    • 2. tap system
  48. Endodermis
    single layer of cells in roots at inner edge of cortex
  49. Vascular System
    (in seed-bearing plants) consists of pericycle, phloem, xylem, piths, pith rays, and vascular cambium
  50. Tissues of Stem
    • 1. Epidermis: outermost tissue layer
    • 2. Sclerenchyma / Collenchyma: several layers of cells for support
    • 3. Vascular Bundles: xylem & phloem formed in ring around central pith region of ground tissue
    • 4. Periderm: cork or bark
    • 5. Vascular Cambium: source or vascular tissue
  51. Name and Describe the 5 Stem Forms
    • 1. Rhizoma: underground, grows horizontally
    • examples - johnson grass, bermuda grass
    • 2. Stolons: aboveground, grows horizontally
    • example - ferns, strawberries, bermuda grass
    • 3. Corms: underground, thickened compressed 
    • examples - freesia, gladiolus
    • 4. Bulbs: underground, highly compressed to which numerous storage leaves are attached
    • examples - onions, tulips
    • 5. Tubers: underground, enlarged, fleshy, terminal portions
    • example - white potato
  52. Mesophyll
    contains intercellular spaces through which CO2, H2O and O2
  53. Name and Define the 2 Types of Flowers
    • 1. Complete: have sepals, stamens, pistils, and pedals
    • 2. Incomplete: lack one or more of following - sepals, pistils,  stamens, pedals
  54. Perfect Flowers
    have both pistil and stamen
  55. Imperfect Flowers 
    pistillate flowers and staminate flowers
  56. Monoecious
    plants having both staminate & pistillate flowers on same same plant (corn)
  57. Dioecious
    plants with pistillate & staminate flowers on seperarte individual plants
  58. Name and Define the Two Types of Fruit
    • 1. Simple: single ovary on one flower
    • 2. Aggregate (Multiple): multiple ovaries on one flower
  59. Tissues
    group of organized cells of similar structure to perform collective function
  60. What is source to sink movenement associated with
  61. Soil Crusting
    where soil gets hard and keeps plant from pushing out
  62. Sclerenchyma Tissue
    thick-walled cells found throughout plants, provide support for stems and bark
  63. Name and Describe the 3 Phases of the Cell Cycle
    • 1: GPhase (1st Gap Phase) - organelles double in number, metabolism increases
    • 2: S Phase (Synthesis Phase) - DNA Replicates
    • 3: GPhase (2nd Gap Phase) - protein sythesis & final preparation for mitosis
  64. 4 Stages of Mitosis
    • 1. Prophase: chromatin condense, nuclear membrane disappears
    • 2. Metaphase: spindle fibers evident, chromatins align along equator
    • 3. Anaphase: chromatids are pulled apart and move to opposite poles
    • 4. Telophase: chromatin lengthens, nuclear membrane reforms
  65. Parenchyma Tissue
    diversely-shaped, thin-walled cells that make up cortex responsible for photosythesis & respiration 
  66. Collenchyma
    reiforced cells with cellulose thickened primary cell walls that are flexible and provide support to petioles and leaves
  67. Name and Describe the 4 Phases of Mitosis
  68. What are the 5 Major Plant Organs and Their Functions
    • 1. Roots: water uptake, support, storage
    • 2. Stems: transport, support, storage, production
    • 3. Leaves: light interception, photosynthesis
    • 4. Inflorescences: (flower), site of meiosis, sexual repro
    • 5. Fruits: mature ovary plus associated parts
  69. Tissues of Root
    • 1. Epidermis: outer layer of cells, includes root hairs
    • 2. Cortex: zone of parenchyma cells for storage and water / nutrient diffusion
    • 3. Endodermis: seperates cortex from stele, has Casparian strip composed of waterproof bark
    • 4. Pericycle: outermost zone of stele, meristematic, responsible for lateral root development
    • 5. Xylem & Phloem: metabolites, food, water, and dissolved nutrient movement
  70. How Much Weight are Roots Responsible for of Plant
    1/4 to 1/3 of total biomass
  71. Mychorrhiza
    threadlike symbiotic fungus that penetrates roots and spreads throughout the soil to effectively increase surface area of plant's root system
  72. Name and Describe the Parts of a Leaf
    • 1. Blade: flat, expanded part of leaf
    • 2. Petiole: leaf stalk, connects blade to stem, conducts materials to and from leaf
    • 3. Sheath: 
    • 4. Stipules: small paired appendages at base of petiole
    • 5. Tendrils: 
  73. Trichomes
    leaf hairs
  74. Name and Describe Flower Parts
    • 1. Calyx: composed of sepals
    • 2. Corolla: composed of petals 
    • 3. Stamens: male reproductive organs, composed of filament and anther
    • 4. Carpels: female reproductive organs, pistil
  75. What do Perfect/Imperfect and Complete/Incomplete Flowers Refer To
    • Perfect - Unisexual or Bisexual 
    • Complete - Major Part Inclusion