Digestion - Biology

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  1. Villi
    Villi absorbs the nutrients in the small intestine. They increase the surface area of the small intestine.
  2. Teeth
    Use mechanical digestion to initially breakdown the food.
  3. Salivary Glands
    The enzyme, amylase, helps to chemically breakdown the carbohydrates in the food. The salvia help to coat the food so it is easier to swallow.
  4. Types of Digestion - Mechanical
    Is when large pieces of food are broken down into smaller pieces of food through chewing, churning or peristalsis.
  5. Types of Digestion - Chemical
    Is when enzymes break down complex substances into their simplest forms.
  6. Stomach
    A muscular part of the gut that holds food and releases protein-digesting enzymes and hydrochloric acid. Uses both chemical and mechanical digestion. It secreates acid and pepsin and stores and mixes food.
  7. Functions of the Liver
    • 1.       Produce bile (thick green) to break down fats  
    • 2.       Stores iron and vitamins
    • 3.       Stores glucose in the form of glycogen
    • 4.       Turns food into substances we can use
    • 5.       Makes blood clotting agents (proteins)
  8. Bile
    • It is stored in the gall bladder
    • It is produced in the liver
    • It is secreted into the duodenum 
    • It is a form of mechanical digestion
    • It breaks down fats/lipids
    • It acts as an emulsifier
    • It increases surface area to the fat so that lipase can act on it
    • It is released when fat is detected going from the stomach to the duodenum
  9. Lipase
    An enzyme that breaks down lipids and is produced in the pancreas. Breaks down fat, triglycerides to glucerol and fatty acids.
  10. Amylase
    An enzyme that works to break down carbohydrates to maltose to glucose.
  11. Trypsin
    An enzyme produced in the pancreas; works on protein.
  12. Chyme
    Food that has been digested in to a 'soupy' substance by the stomach.
  13. Duodenum
    The first part of the small intestine.
  14. Small Intestine
    Leads from the stomach to the large intestine, where nutrients are absorbed by the villi.
  15. Large Intestine
    At the end of the digestive system, where water is absorbed. 
  16. Ingestion
    The taking in of nutrients.
  17. Digestion
    The breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by mechanical and chemical means.
  18. Absorption
    The taking up of digested molecules into the cells of the digestive tract.
  19. Egestion
    The removal of waste food materials from the body.
  20. Peristalsis
    When boluses (small lumps of food) are moved through the gut by waves of muscular contractions.
  21. Mastication
    Mechanical digestion - chewing - large particles broken into smaller particles.
  22. Pancreas
    A gland located behind the stomach; produces juices and leads into the top of the small intestine.
  23. Gizzard
    The muscular section of bird's stomach.
  24. Crop
    An organ designed to store undigestion food in the bird digestive tract.
  25. Caecum
    • Portion of the large intestine
    • Its function is to assist in the digestion of plant-based foods
    • There are mirco-organisms which like in the caecum and digest the cellulose for the animal
  26. What system does fat go into?
    Fat goes to the lymphatic system
  27. Adipose Tissue
    Connective tissue which stores fat, and which cushions and insulates the body. 
Card Set:
Digestion - Biology
2012-09-10 11:10:38
Biology Digestion

Animals, Humans, Organs, Enzymes, Mechanical, Chemical etc.
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