activity analysis 2261 exam 1

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activity analysis 2261 exam 1
2012-09-09 15:58:50
activity analysis 2261 exam

activity analysis exam 1
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  1. occupational therapy
    therapeutic use of self-care, work and play activities to increase independent function, enhance development, and prevent disability

    may include adaptation of task or environment to achieve maximum independence and to enhance quality of life
  2. activity analysis
    a way of thinking about activities

    an analytic process

    ways of thinking used by OT practitioners to understand activities and occupations

    activity demands

    their therapeutic potential

    skills required to do them

    potential meaning to the client
  3. central components of OT practice
    activity analysis

    theory-focused activity analysis

    occupational-based activity analysis

    occupationad-based functional motion assessment
  4. Activity Analysis(central component of OT practice)
    think about activities...........
    their therapeutic potential

    address the demands of the activity

    objects and their properties

    space demands

    social demands

    sequence and timing

    required actions and skills

    required body functions and structures
  5. the skills involved:
    motor and praxis skills

    sensory perceptual skills

    emotional regulations skills

    cognitive skills
  6. link to performance patterns



  7. link to contexts and environments




  8. goal of activity analysis
    understand as much as possible about the activity to do it competently and in relation to the "world".
  9. activity analysis
    related to the OT Practice Framework

    reflects the current practice of OT and its concern for supporting occupational engagement and social participation of individuals in our society
  10. activity analysis focuses on:
    activity demands

    performance skills
  11. activity demands
    • aspects of the activity
    • objects typically used

    • space
    • social demands
    • skills required to carry it out
    • objects and their properties
    • space demands (relates to physical context)
    • social demands (relates to social and cultural context)
    • sequence and timing
    • required actions
    • required body functions
    • required body structures
  12. performance skills
    motor and praxis skills

    sensory-perceptual skills

    emotional regulation skills

    cognitive skills

    communication/interaction skills
  13. motor and praxis skills

    actions or behaviors to move and physically interact with tasks, objects, contexts, and environments


    skilled purposeful movements

    ability to carry out sequential motor acts as part of an overall plan rather than individual acts

    bending and reaching



    maintance balance

    anticipating or adjusting posture and body position

  14. sensory-perceptual skills
    actions used to locate, identify and respond to sensations and (sensations)

    to select, interpret, associate, organize and remember sensory events through a variety of sensations.(perceptual)


    hearing and locating

    visually determining


    timing the appropriate moment

  15. communication and social skills
    actions or behaviors a person uses to communicate and interact with others in an interactive environment



    maintaining acceptable physical space

    initiatingand answering

  16. emotional regulation skills
    • actions or behaviors used to identify,
    • manage,
    • and express feelings while engaging in activities or interacting with others






  17. cognitive skills
    actions or behaviors used to plan and manage the performance of an activity





    prioritizing and indentifying


  18. activity analysis format

    objects used and their properties

    space demands

    social demands

    sequence and timing

    required actions

    required body structures and functions

    safety hazards
  19. theory-focused activity analysis
    (central component of OT practice)
    has a different focus

    examines the properties of an activity from a theoretical perspective

    use principles of practive theories

    analysis related performance problems to practrice theories

    each theory describes function, dysfunction and the use of occupation's to enable clients to improve their performance

    linked to the grading and adaptation of the occupation chosen by the client
  20. Example: inability to cook
    problems in motor performance limit ability to hold utensils and lift object due to decreased strength

    biomechanical approach would be used to improve strength by increasing resistance or repetitions of motions

    poor motor performance due to inability to perform complex movement patterns

    biomechanical approach is not appropriate

    multicontext theoretical approach analyzes activities from simple to complex movement patterns.
  21. theory-focused format
    describe the activity

    name the practice theory

    • how does this theory define
    • 1. function?
    • 2. dysfunction?
    • 3. change?


    how can the activity be graded to improve skill?

    how can the activity be adaptive to improve performance?
  22. Occupational based activity analysis
    (central component of OT practice)
    analysis places the person first

    • takes into account the person's
    • 1. interests
    • 2.  goals
    • 3.  abilities
    • 4.contexts
    • 5. demands of the activity

    utilizes a top-down model

    occupational-based activity analysis is embedded in the evaluation process

    1.  look at a persons ability to perform valued occupations

    2.  understand strengths and weaknesses of his/her performance

    selection and design of therapeutic occupations are determined from:

    • 1.  understanding the client and his/her goals
    • 2.  the barriers to performance

    3.  therapeutic interventions
  23. Occupational-based activity analysis format
    1.Who is this person? an activity

    3.object used and their properties demands demands

    6.sequence and timing

    7.required actions

    8.required body structures and functions hazards
  24. occupational-based functional motion assessment
    (central components of OT practice)
    while performing functional activities, the therapist will estimate the client's existing ROM, muscle strength and motor control utilized to complete the task.

    • 1.  the starting position of the client

    2.  the movements needed to perform the activity

    3.  the amount of strength required

    4.  and compare them to the client's actual performance

    • the OT practitioner is responsible for:
    • 1.assessing occupational performance
    • 2.indentifying performance problems and
    • 3.planning interventions

    because people perform the same activity in different ways, the level of ROM, strength or motor control required may vary

    assessment of physical limitations can be made through observation of a client's performance while engaged in a variety of occupations

    this observation may indicate that an assessment of specific body factors or performance skills may be necessary
  25. Grading and adaptation
    • facilitates therapeutic change
    • and
    • engagement in occupation
  26. Grading
    improve underlying capacities and skills


    sequentially increasing demands to stimulate improvement in function

    sequentially decreasing demands to stimulate performance of function
  27. adaptation

    allow continued involvement in a valued occupation that can no longer be performed

    not working to improve functional capacity of the individual

    changing the demands of the activity so they are within the individual's ability level

    • modification of the occupation by
    • 1.  reducing demands
    • 2. utilizing assistive devices
    • 3. change the physical or social environment

    • use of adaptive equipment
    • reachers
    • sock aid
    • built-handle
    • utensils
    • voice recognition software
    • etc
  28. theories to rationalize choice of purposeful activity/occupation
    each model is based on a theory

    • a theory is an idea about:
    • why life is like it is, and
    • why things and people work the way they work

    theory is not static, nor is it ever final
  29. Neuromoter behavior model
    function is a balance of biochemical and biological process

    • function is expressed in the integration of
    • sensory input and perceptual-motor output

    • body movements are based upon:
    • 1. neurological wiring-ex.CP
    • 2. chemical transport-ex.MD
    • 3. storage of information in the neurological system ex. stroke

    illness or defects in the nervous system (brain, vestibular, proprioceptive, visual and auditory systems: ex. MS, stroke, head injury) interfere with awareness or processing and integration of sensations in these systems

    abnormal behaviors, unusual movement patterns
  30. OT treatment
    neuromotor behavior model:
    reverse the illness or defect

    utilize gross motor body movements and heavy work patterns

    crafts that involve heavy work patterns and postural changes are considered to achieve normal neural reactions

    • sawing
    • hammering
    • throwing
    • mixing
  31. learning/cognitive disabilities
    cognitive abilities:

    • learn
    • speak
    • use language
    • change and preserve material objects (the skill of adaptation)

    symbols, words and langauage are important in assessing cognition and level of arousal

    illness or dysfunction means:

    inability to learn or remember how to speak and how to do things relationship between biological and psychiatric disease

    OT treatment:

    learning includes learning new behaviors

    assess client's cognitive function by observing task performance

    avoid tasks beyond the client's functional level

    variety of craft are appropriate
  32. developmental/spatiotemporal adaptation
    humans progress in an orderly way through various growth stages

    changes may be gradual

    behaviors from different stages may be seen at the same time


    absence of age appropriate behaviors

    failure to pass through the expected stages

    regression from a higher to lower stage of development

    dysfunction is caused by:


    2.neurological impairment

    3. environmental factors

    dysfunction  is failure to master or accomplish the life tasks expected for a particular stage of development

    OT treatment

    crafts are a means for attaining stage-specific behaviors, mastering a developmental stage

    treatment environment is used to maximize and promote development

    wide variety of crafts/mediums may be used

    must "match" the developmental stage of the client
  33. lifestyle/adaptive performance
    based upon ideas from anthropology, economics, politics, physiology, and history

    hoiw humans go about satisfying his or her needs in various contexts

    • core concepts related to the domains of:
    • 1. self-care
    • 2. intrinsic gratification
    • 3. interpersonal relationships

    group design for acceptable beliefs and behaviors

    success depends on cultural norms and values

    illness is defined:

    the inability to perform in the domains of: 1. self care

    2. intrinsic gratification

    3. social contribution

    4. relationships in their environment the origin of

    • illness can be:
    • 1. biomechanical

    2. biochemical-mental illness

    3.environment result of dysfunction: a decrease independent need satisfaction
  34. OT Treatment
    lifestyle/adaptation performance
    use of crafts related to purpose

    crafts and other functional tasks have multifle purposes or meanings

    doing becomes a critical skill

    group activities are the most valuable

    through doing, clients learn culturally acceptable ways of communication as well as actual task skills

    through doing, clients learn skills to satisfy their needs as well as the needs of others
  35. rehabilitation model
    physical medicine

    potential for improvement lies in human function

    humans have segments in their lives:

    • 1.physical
    • 2.mental
    • 4.vocational

    each segment is assessed and treated in an interdisciplinary approach

    professionals meet as a team, share findings and develop a plan with the client

    holistic approach

    illness or dysfunction results from:

    • external trauma
    • endogenous illness-arthritis, illness starts within the body often no permanent solution or cure for the problem.  will always have arthritis
  36. OT treatment
    for rehabilitation model
    therapist-client relationship is one of teacher-learner

    activities are chosen to challenge the client to go beyond

    help client reach the limit of his/her capabilities

    • crafts may be used to achieve goals in:
    • 1.physical
    • 2.mental
    • 4.vocational spheres

    reduced use of crafts

    work simulation or vocational tasks predominate

    activities of daily living

  37. model of human occupation
    • three subsystems
    • 1.volitional subsystem
    • 2.habituation subsystem
    • 3.the mind-brain-body performance subsystem

    each subsystem has changing levels of power and importance
  38. volitional subsystem(MOHO):
    personal causation




  39. habituation subsystem(MOHO):
    the habits and learned roles that give a person stability

    can perform an action without thinking through the action (it can let us function without thinking)
  40. the mind-brain-body performance subsystem(MOHO):
    puts it all together for the individual to perform an action or occupation

    concepts of cause and effect are important

    related to a person's idea of his/her own capability to control what happens to him/her

    • an interactive model:
    •  context is central to occupation
    • environment and issues related to time in a person's life) is considered central to occupation

    environment interaction is the essence of human occupation

    all about choices

    occupation is expressed as an innate need to participate insociety and cluture

    client must choose his or her own activities/occupation
  41. dysfunction(MOHO):
    lack of meaning or purpose

    failure to explore and become involved with the environment

    dysfunction is not static, but fluctuates and changes with the environment
  42. OT treatment(MOHO)
    (all about making choices)
    therapist must encourage the client to choose an activity/occupation rather than assigning one

    crafts are used in the model

    allows the client to explore and work with materials(crafts give you alot of choices)

    treatment setting provides a varioety of craft samples and materials

    • motivates the client to explore and achieve mastery of a craft
    • (mastery of the clinical environment)

    mastery transfers to the environment outside the clinical setting
  43. occupation adaptation
    humanity adapts to change through being occupied

    occupation-the idea of intrinsic motivation to do activities/occupations

    attempts to adapt to changing conditions:  internal or external

    • analyzing the client:
    • 1.psychosocial
    • 2.sensorimotor
    • 3.cognitive

    • assumption:
    • there is a limited amount ofenergy available for each client to expand on any particular adaptive response
  44. ot treatment
    (occupation adaptation)
    therapist assists the client to pace themselves so they do not exhaust their energy supply (use long term projecgts)

    • relate craft:
    • 1. motivate the client toward an activity/occupation

    2. guide the client toward mastery
  45. rationale for choosing an occupation/activity
    OT process:



    3.treatment planning

    4.treatment implementation

    treatment planning:

    1.determine the clients functional level

    2.prioritize the problems

    3.establish long term goals

    4.establish short term(with client input) goals/objectives

    list activities/occupations that could help the client accomplish the short term goals
  46. occupation=purposeful activity
    occupations have meaning to the client

    expectation for the final result
  47. rationale for the activity
    analysis process
    a key to treatment in occupational therapy is the careful identification of the skills required to perform the activity

    thorough understanding of the nature of the activity

    the client takes an actiove role in the treatment process when involved in the choice opf the activity used

    it is the therapist's judgement and application of the purposeful activity selected that determines therapeutic effectiveness of the activity chosen

    a therapist's skill at analyzing activities is critical to setting realistic treatment goals
  48. activity analysis is a method that will:
    1.provide the therapist with a thorough understanding of the performance of the activity and the knowledge base for instructing others to perform theactivity with the use of directions, simplification, and/or adaptation

    2.contribute facts regarding equipment, supplies, and materials, cost, time, space, and staff required to perform the activity

    3.generate knowledge to judge for whom, when, where, and under what circumstances the use of the activity would be therapeutic

    4.justify using the activity with clients by detailing the therapeutic benefits of the activity as defined by the analysis information to document an individual's progress in terms of the level of skill, ability, achievement, and difficulty encountered and provide reference points for intervention

    6.  determine alternative way and means of performing the activity in an acceptable manner through adapting or modifying equipment, the environment, or the activithy

    7.practice problem-solving skills in selecting activities to meet specific client needs

    8. propose treatment goals in the performance areas of work, daily life skills, and play using an activity with a given individual

    9.use the OT practice framework to describe, analyze and document the use of activity in the practice of occupational therapy
  49. the activity analysis process
    look at the activity from 2 perspectives it is normally performed it is performed by a specific individual
  50. the client may be able to:
    perform the activity as it would "normally" be performed

    perform the activity only after it is restructured to place it within the client's range of ability