psychology 1.txt

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psychology 1.txt
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2012-09-08 13:11:04
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psychology
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psychology
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  1. Wundt (1879)
    • 1st psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany.
    • did a lot of reaction time
  2. Structuralism- 1st system
    • Edward Bradford Titchener- student of Wundt
    • sought to describe the basic elements (structure) of consciousness using introspection- what are the contents of the mind
    • introspection- turn inward into the contents of your mind & analyze your most basic elements
  3. Functionalism
    • William James (1890)- 1st American psychologists
    • sought to discover how consciousness functioned to help people adapt to their environment- pragmatic- what the mind is good for
    • wrote Principles of Psychology- applied concept to himself. Father died; he acted as if he wasn't upset to appear that he wasn't upset.
    • during the beginning of Darwin & evolution
  4. Psychoanalysis (psychodynamic)
    • Freud- unconscious conflicts motivate much of our behavior- started out using hypnosis, then moved to dream analysis
    • devised treatment aimed at making the unconscious conscious
  5. Gestalt Psychology (pg. 121)
    • German "whole" Wertheimer (1912) created Gestalt after he observed the phi phenomenon- what we perceive doesn't always match up w/ reality
    • Phi phenomenon Demo-the whole is greater than the sum of its parts�
  6. Behaviorism
    • Watson (1913) said consciousness cannot be studied scientifically- can't observe itproposed that psychologists study only publicly observable (overt) behavior
    • B.F. Skinner: operant conditioning
  7. Humanistic Psychology (Maslow, Rogers)
    • "phenomenological"
    • emphasizes the unique experiences of individuals, especially their capacity for personal growth
    • self-actualization- at top of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, have to take care of basic needs at the bottom first- become best person you can be
  8. cognitive psych
    - study how the mind processes information- memory, decision-making, etc.
  9. physiological/biological psych
    study effect of bio factors on mental & behavioral processes- emotions, perceptions, how diff structures of brain relate to diff types of behavior, etc.
  10. developmental
    - study changes in behavior & mental processes over the life span- look at what's normal dev for a particular age
  11. experimental
    - heavy reliance on experimentation and its relatively infrequent use of correlational methods
  12. personality
    - concerned w/ understanding & describing people's enduring behavior patterns & psychological processes that underlie them; focus on how personality develops & factors that shape it
  13. psychometrics
    - concerned w/ precise measurement of behavior & mental processes; design personality tests to measure various aspects of personality, intelligence, & specific abilities; ensuring reliability, validity, etc. of tests
  14. educational
    - study intertwined processes of teaching & learning, inc. motivation, abilities, learning styles, classroom diversity, curriculum design, instructional methods, & achievement testing; attempt to understand how students learn & then develop materials & strategies to enhance teaching process
  15. health
    - concerned w/ role of psychological factors in promotion & maintenance of good health, prevention & treatment of illness, & formulation of health policy
  16. social
    - study how other people influence our beliefs, feelings, & behaviors
  17. clinical
    - assess, diagnose, & treat people w/ psychological problems & disorders; therapists for people experience normal psychological crises or for individuals suffering from severe, chronic disorders
  18. counseling psychology
    - focus more on persons w/ normal adjustment problems rather than on those suffering from severe psychological disorders
  19. clinical neuropsychology
    - combines clinical psychology (assessment & psychotherapy) and behavioral neuroscience (study of the neural bases of behavior); assess and treat individuals w/ central nervous system dysfunctions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, dementia, & seizure disorders
  20. school
    - strive to promote cognitive, emotional, and social development of children in educational settings
  21. forensic
    - legal system; concerned w/ child custody decisions & involuntary commitment, among other issues
  22. industrial/organizational psychology
    - concerned w/ application of psychological principles in workplace; interested in selecting employees, improving organizational effectiveness & quality of work life, & designing work environments to match people's capacities & limitations
  23. *Descriptive Research Methods
    - all methods are descriptive except for an experiment- experimental is the only way to determine cause & effect
  24. Naturalistic Observation
    • watching & recording a phenomenon as it naturally occurs, w/o disrupting it
    • provides descriptive data about behavior, supposedly uncontaminated by outside influences
    • good for initial stages of inquiry & for dev hypo for future study
    • observer bias & participant self-consciousness can distort results
    • cannot draw conclusions re: cause & effect
    • reactivity- subject's behavior is altered by presence of an observer
  25. Case study
    • - intensive exam of some event/phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation
    • useful when phenomenon is new or rare
    • provide ideas for further research
    • results not generalizable
    • Phineas Gage
  26. Survey
    • - sampling a large group of people thru questionnaires o interviews inquiring about their attitudes, beliefs, opinions
    • efficient way to gather a lot of data- smoking & anxiety
    • cannot infer causality (cause & effect)
  27. validity may be questionable based on the following for sampling:
    • poorly phrased questions- wording is crucial
    • who is surveyed, who chooses to respond, & who doesn't- sampling is critical (Shere Hite study)
    • social desirability effect- participants say what they think they should say
  28. Internet-mediated research
    - surveys done on the internet, can obtain more diverse samples, data can be collected 24/7, can save time & money
  29. problems w/ experimental
    • not always feasible- more said later- not possible to study may be too artificial/not like the real world- not enough like what life is like
    • experimenter bias- confounding variable that occurs when an experimenter (usually unintentionally) encourages participants to respond in a way that supports the hypothesis.
    • Solution: double-blind design- research design where neither the experimenter nor participants know who is in the experimental group & who is in control group
  30. independent variable (IV)
    manipulated by experimenter
  31. dependent variable (DV)-
    variable measured following manipulation of the independent variable
  32. Experimental
    • random assignment & manipulation- two key features of experimental research
    • key concepts- IV, DV, Exp, & control
    • research method in which the experimenter manipulates one variable (IV) and observes the effect of that manipulation on another variable (DV), while holding all other variables constant via random assignment to conditions
    •  
  33. confounding variable
    • - any factor that affects the DV along with, or instead of, the IV. Solution: random assignment- procedure whereby uncontrolled variables are evenly distributed in an experiment thru randomly assigning participants to experimental or control groups- the great equalizer
    •  
  34. acetylcholine (Ach)
    • - released by motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles; contributes to regulation of attention, arousal, and memory; some Ach receptors stimulated by nicotine
    • movement- released onto muscle to contract it
    • memory (limbic system- hippocampus)- ability to form new memories
    • Alzheimer's disease- dying off of neurons that produce Ach. drugs to treat would be Ach agonists. Low levels.
    • nicotine- boost the levels
  35. dopamine (DA)
    • - contributes to control of voluntary movement; cocaine & amphetamines elevate activity at DA synapses; dopamine circuits in medial forebrain bundle characterized as reward pathway
    • movement
    • Parkinson's disease (too little)- cells dying off that create DA
    • Schizophrenia (too much)
    • motivation (reward/pleasure)
    • meth, cocaine, marijuana
  36. norepinephrine (NE)
    • sleep (wakefulness), learning, mood (energy levels)
    • depressive disorders- tricyclics (dopamine, norep, serotonin). NE is underactive
    • fight or flight- prepares body for life-threatening situations
    • anxiety- too much NE
    • adrenaline
  37. serotonin
    • mood
    • depression- SSRI- low serotonin
    • appetite
    • calming neurotransmitter
    • inhibits aggression
    • sleep
  38. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
    • main inhibitory NT
    • Huntington's disease (too little GABA)
    • epilepsy (too little GABA)
    • anxiety disorders (too little GABA)
    • caffeine- blocking GABA receptors
    • alcohol- stimulates GABA receptors
    • benzodiazipines- valium, Xanax, Ativan; calming effect; stimulate GABA receptors; memory loss, difficulty concentrating
  39. glutamate
    • -involved in learning & memory
    • main excitatory NT
    • strengthens connections b/t synapses
    • neuron loss after stroke- surrounding neurons get excited after stroke and fire themselves to death
  40. endorphins
    -resemble opiate drugs in structure & effects; play role in pain relief & response to stress; contribute to regulation of eating behavior
  41. medulla
    - controls vital functions (breathing, maintaining muscle tone, & regulating circulation)
  42. pons
    - bridge of fibers that connects brain & spinal cord
  43. reticular formation (extends into midbrain)
    - allows us to filter out irrelevant info & focus on important info; sleep & arousal
  44. cerebellum
    - relatively large & deeply folded structure located adjacent to back surface of brainstem, coordination of movement, critical to sense of equilibrium, or physical balance; store info/memory for physical movement- movement might be disordered if damaged
  45. Substantia Nigra (black substance)
    - movement (smoothness, initiation)- makes dopamine. Parkinson's disease
  46. reticular formation
    • - sleep & arousal, attention ("filtering" of info)
    • also connects to hindbrain
  47. thalamus-
    all sensory info (except smell) must pass to get to cerebral cortex; made up of somas; relay station- decides where to route info
  48. hypothalamus
    - near base of forebrain; regulation of basic physiological feedback (hunger, thirst, temperature, sexual behavior); control ANS; regulation of biological drives
  49. amygdala
    - connects sensory & emotional information; scans environment for potential threat- part of limbic system
  50. hippocampus
    - ability to form new memories- limbic
  51. limbic
    - loosely connected network of structures located roughly along border b/t cerebral cortex & deeper subcortical areas; parts of thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, pituitary gland & other structures; pleasure centers
  52. cerebral cortex
    - primary processing area, outermost part of brain
  53. corpus callosum
    - transfers info b/t 2 cerebral hemispheres
  54. cerebrum/cerebral cortex
    - responsible for learning, remembering, thinking, & consciousness itself, etc.; cerebral hemisphere- right & left halves of cerebrum, separated in center by longitudinal fissure LABEL
  55. occipital lobe
    - most visual signals are sent & visual processing begins (primary visual cortex)- blindness if it is damaged
  56. parietal lobe
    - sense of touch, primary somatosensory cortex, temperature, pain
  57. temporal lobe
    - hearing, language
  58. Wernicke's area
    -temporal; receptive language- speech/language comprehension
  59. frontal
    • - largest; decision making, some suggest that it houses some "executive control system" which is thought to monitor, organize, & direct thought processes
    • personality, thinking, motor cortex (decide to start moving)- planning
  60. Broca's area
    -frontal; expressive language- speech production

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