eTest 1-- powerpoint and iClick.txt

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dmk5154
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169664
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eTest 1-- powerpoint and iClick.txt
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2012-09-08 18:56:39
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psu
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etest 1 bio 230w
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  1. Which of the following statements are false about organelles? 1) all organelles are membrane bound 2) only eukaryotes have organelles 3) some organelles are made of proteins 4) endosymbiosis did not play a role in the origin of any organelle
    Answer: 4
  2. ribosomes are located in the cytoplasm or the ER, they translate ______ into proteins
    mRNA
  3. the golgi body produces membrane bound bubbles: secretory (transport) and lysosomes (digestion). these are ________
    vesicles
  4. mitochondria, chloroplasts, and amyloplasts have ______________ DNA
    small, circular pieces (of DNA)
  5. a network of proteins in the cytoplasm, ____________ is made up of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin
    cytoskeleton
  6. mitosis, organize organelles, tracks for transportation, and strutural support are functions of the ___________
    cytoskeleton
  7. If you reduce the activity of golgi bodies in a cell, what would you predict to be the outcome? 1) extra proteins will be added to the cell membrane 2) more vesicles will form for transport 3) there will be fewer proteins targeted for transport to the cell membrane 4) fewer ribosomes will be present in the cytoplasm
    Answer: 3
  8. What energetic role do protons play in both mitochondria and chloroplasts? 1) they are used to produce NAD+ 2) they are used to establish an electrochemical gradient 3) they are used to split water 4) they are used to transport electrons
    Answer: 2 ( they produce NADH-- not NAD+)
  9. which of the following has a lipid bilayer membrane? 1) the mitochondria 2) the plasma membrane 3) the smooth ER 4) the golgi apparatus 5) all of these are correct
    Answer: 5
  10. ________ is the only organelle with a double lipid biplayer.
    mitochondria
  11. ribosomes are responsible for mRNA ____________
    translation
  12. a cell is broken down into a mass of cell organelles; this is termed a _____
    homogenate
  13. 50 microns is equal to ... 1) 0.5 mm 2) 0.05 mm 3) 0.005 mm 4) 0.0005 mm
    Answer: 2
  14. ________ is the ability to tell two points apart
    resolution
  15. an example of reflected light in science is the ________ microscope
    dissecting
  16. Why does SEM microscopy have improved resolution?
    they emit short electron wavelengths
  17. SEM microscopes show ______ detail, while transmission electron microscopes show ______
    surface; inside
  18. for _________ electron microscopes, the sample must be thin and the light wavelengths must pass through the sample
    transmission
  19. You want to view surface details in a cell that is 10 microns in diameter. Which technique would give you the most detail? 1) dissecting microscopy 2) SEM 3) transmission electron microscopy 4) They can be seen with the naked eye
    Answer: SEM (you want to see surface detail)
  20. in ________ microscopy, the specimen itself IS the light source.
    epifluoresence
  21. in epifluoresence microscopy, GFP is hooked onto a gene of interest. It is then spread through _________ to allow observation
    transduction > translation > and then expression!
  22. Why is DNA considered antiparallel?
    each strand runs in oppsite directions
  23. Why are the ends of DNA named 3' or 5'?
    carbon functional groups are connected to the phosphate backbone. Each end has separate # of Carbon linked (either 3 or 5)
  24. A:T interactions have ____ H bonds while G:C interactions require ____ H bonds
    2; 3
  25. during gel electrophoresis, to which electrode does DNA migrate (+ or -)? Why?
    DNA migrates to the + electrode... because DNA is negatively charged (opposites attract)
  26. electron scanning and transmission microscopy have ______ resolution because accelerated electrons have a _____ wavelength compared to visible light.
    HIGH; shorter
  27. Light used to excite a fluorescent protein has ___ energy compared to the emitted light.
    more
  28. _______ is a polymer of nucleotides
    DNA
  29. ____________ consist of a nucleobase, a sugar, and a phosphate group
    nucleotides
  30. The two types of nucleobases are _______________ and _______________
    purines and pyrimidines
  31. _______ nucleobase consists of Adenine and Guanine (AG). They have two carbon-ring structures as opposed to one.
    Purine
  32. __________ nucleobases consist of Cytosine, Uracil, and Thymine (CUT). They have one carbon-ring structures as opposed to two
    pyrimidines
  33. During correct DNA base pairing, nucleobases base-pair in a specific pattern: __________:_________
    always pyrimidine: purine
  34. which strand is held most tightly to its complimentary strand? 1) AAATTT 2) AAACCC 3) GGAAAA 4) GGGCCC
    Answer: 4 (GGGCCC has more H bonds than AAATTT)
  35. the most common DNA in nature is the right handed __ -DNA
    B
  36. DNA is a double helix because........
    each strand is twisting itself, while it also twists around its complimentary strand
  37. the ______ groove is the site for protein association
    major (it has room for more access)
  38. _-DNA is a left-handed double helix
    Z
  39. (enzymes) nucleases cut DNA... endonucleases cut DNA ___________, separating sticky and blunt
    within the strand
  40. Which is an example of a possible restriction site? 1) GGTACC 2) GATTAG 3) TTTCCC 4) AATGG
    Answer: 1 (it is the SAME forwards AS IT IS BACKWARDS)
  41. (enzyme) DNA ________- repairs damage and moves DNA around... it joins 3' OH to 5' PO_4 (sticky ends!)
    ligase
  42. (enzyme) ___________ have both endonuclease and ligase activity-- they cut one strand to release tension and then rejoin the strand
    topoisomerase
  43. (enzyme) uses ATP to break hydrogen bonds between nucleobases... _____ essentially unwinds the DNA down the middle
    helicase
  44. a type of chromatin with loose histone association is called _________
    euchromatin
  45. a type of chromatin with a tight association with histones, and occurs during mitosis
    heterochromatin
  46. what type of chromatin is present during mitosis? Hetereochromatin or euchromatin?
    heterochromatin
  47. ___________ package DNA (and alter chromatin structure) into units called nucleosomes. they are spools of 8 core proteins for DNA to wind around.
    histones
  48. The basic unit of DNA packaging. It is made up of a DNA segment wound around a histone protein core, resulting in a tight loop of DNA.
    nucleosome
  49. _____chromatins have _____ histone counts and condensation, with gene expression.
    eu; high
  50. _____chormatins have ______ histone counts and condensation, with no gene expression.
    hetero; low
  51. histone ________ plays a role in gene transcription binding to amino acids, activating or deactivating genes (the added groups allow or deny access of DNA to transcription factors)
    histone methylation

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