Which of the following statements are false about organelles? 1) all organelles are membrane bound 2) only eukaryotes have organelles 3) some organelles are made of proteins 4) endosymbiosis did not play a role in the origin of any organelle
ribosomes are located in the cytoplasm or the ER, they translate ______ into proteins
the golgi body produces membrane bound bubbles: secretory (transport) and lysosomes (digestion). these are ________
mitochondria, chloroplasts, and amyloplasts have ______________ DNA
small, circular pieces (of DNA)
a network of proteins in the cytoplasm, ____________ is made up of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin
mitosis, organize organelles, tracks for transportation, and strutural support are functions of the ___________
If you reduce the activity of golgi bodies in a cell, what would you predict to be the outcome? 1) extra proteins will be added to the cell membrane 2) more vesicles will form for transport 3) there will be fewer proteins targeted for transport to the cell membrane 4) fewer ribosomes will be present in the cytoplasm
What energetic role do protons play in both mitochondria and chloroplasts? 1) they are used to produce NAD+ 2) they are used to establish an electrochemical gradient 3) they are used to split water 4) they are used to transport electrons
Answer: 2 ( they produce NADH-- not NAD+)
which of the following has a lipid bilayer membrane? 1) the mitochondria 2) the plasma membrane 3) the smooth ER 4) the golgi apparatus 5) all of these are correct
________ is the only organelle with a double lipid biplayer.
ribosomes are responsible for mRNA ____________
a cell is broken down into a mass of cell organelles; this is termed a _____
50 microns is equal to ... 1) 0.5 mm 2) 0.05 mm 3) 0.005 mm 4) 0.0005 mm
________ is the ability to tell two points apart
an example of reflected light in science is the ________ microscope
Why does SEM microscopy have improved resolution?
they emit short electron wavelengths
SEM microscopes show ______ detail, while transmission electron microscopes show ______
for _________ electron microscopes, the sample must be thin and the light wavelengths must pass through the sample
You want to view surface details in a cell that is 10 microns in diameter. Which technique would give you the most detail? 1) dissecting microscopy 2) SEM 3) transmission electron microscopy 4) They can be seen with the naked eye
Answer: SEM (you want to see surface detail)
in ________ microscopy, the specimen itself IS the light source.
in epifluoresence microscopy, GFP is hooked onto a gene of interest. It is then spread through _________ to allow observation
transduction > translation > and then expression!
Why is DNA considered antiparallel?
each strand runs in oppsite directions
Why are the ends of DNA named 3' or 5'?
carbon functional groups are connected to the phosphate backbone. Each end has separate # of Carbon linked (either 3 or 5)
A:T interactions have ____ H bonds while G:C interactions require ____ H bonds
during gel electrophoresis, to which electrode does DNA migrate (+ or -)? Why?
DNA migrates to the + electrode... because DNA is negatively charged (opposites attract)
electron scanning and transmission microscopy have ______ resolution because accelerated electrons have a _____ wavelength compared to visible light.
Light used to excite a fluorescent protein has ___ energy compared to the emitted light.
_______ is a polymer of nucleotides
____________ consist of a nucleobase, a sugar, and a phosphate group
The two types of nucleobases are _______________ and _______________
purines and pyrimidines
_______ nucleobase consists of Adenine and Guanine (AG). They have two carbon-ring structures as opposed to one.
__________ nucleobases consist of Cytosine, Uracil, and Thymine (CUT). They have one carbon-ring structures as opposed to two
During correct DNA base pairing, nucleobases base-pair in a specific pattern: __________:_________
always pyrimidine: purine
which strand is held most tightly to its complimentary strand? 1) AAATTT 2) AAACCC 3) GGAAAA 4) GGGCCC
Answer: 4 (GGGCCC has more H bonds than AAATTT)
the most common DNA in nature is the right handed __ -DNA
DNA is a double helix because........
each strand is twisting itself, while it also twists around its complimentary strand
the ______ groove is the site for protein association
major (it has room for more access)
_-DNA is a left-handed double helix
(enzymes) nucleases cut DNA... endonucleases cut DNA ___________, separating sticky and blunt
within the strand
Which is an example of a possible restriction site? 1) GGTACC 2) GATTAG 3) TTTCCC 4) AATGG
Answer: 1 (it is the SAME forwards AS IT IS BACKWARDS)
(enzyme) DNA ________- repairs damage and moves DNA around... it joins 3' OH to 5' PO_4 (sticky ends!)
(enzyme) ___________ have both endonuclease and ligase activity-- they cut one strand to release tension and then rejoin the strand
(enzyme) uses ATP to break hydrogen bonds between nucleobases... _____ essentially unwinds the DNA down the middle
a type of chromatin with loose histone association is called _________
a type of chromatin with a tight association with histones, and occurs during mitosis
what type of chromatin is present during mitosis? Hetereochromatin or euchromatin?
___________ package DNA (and alter chromatin structure) into units called nucleosomes. they are spools of 8 core proteins for DNA to wind around.
The basic unit of DNA packaging. It is made up of a DNA segment wound around a histone protein core, resulting in a tight loop of DNA.
_____chromatins have _____ histone counts and condensation, with gene expression.
_____chormatins have ______ histone counts and condensation, with no gene expression.
histone ________ plays a role in gene transcription binding to amino acids, activating or deactivating genes (the added groups allow or deny access of DNA to transcription factors)