Ecology 1st test review

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zzto
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Ecology 1st test review
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2012-09-08 19:52:11
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Ecology 1st test review ecu
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  1. 1
  2. Which of the following statements about the term ecology is true?
    Ecology involves the scientific study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms.
  3. Which wind pattern is indicated by the arrow?
    study em
  4. A group of individuals of a single species living in a particular area and that interact with one another is called a(n)
  5. Which of the following statements about the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is false?
    Its cycles typically do not last as long as those of ENSO and other similar oscillations.
  6. Which of the following statements about the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is false?
    Its cycles typically do not last as long as those of ENSO and other similar oscillations.
  7. Which of the following terrestrial biomes has been transformed the most by direct human activity?
    Temperate grassland
  8. Which of the following best describes the treatment group in Johnson's controlled experiment on the effects of trematode parasites on the developing limbs of tadpoles?
    Tadpoles grown in the presence of trematode parasites
  9. Compared with land at the same latitude, ocean waters tend to be _______ in the winter and _______ in the summer because water has a _______ heat capacity than land has.
    warmer; colder; higher
  10. Which of the following statements best describes the information found in the textbook?
    The information in the textbook may be contradicted or modified in the future because what we know about ecology is always changing.
  11. On what time scale does the El Niño Southern Oscillation occur?
    Between 2 and 10 years
  12. Milankovitch cycles?
    Periodic variations in the earth's position relative to the sun as the earth orbits, affecting the distribution of the solar radiation reaching the earth and causing climatic changes that have profound impacts on the abundance and distribution of organisms, best seen in the fossil record of the Quaternary Period (the last 1.6 million years).
  13. A mouse exposed to reduced levels of oxygen initially cannot run as fast as usual, but after a week its performance improves. This is an example of _______ to _______.
    acclimatization; hypoxia
  14. If the tilt of Earth's axis were to decrease,
    seasonality would be reduced.
  15. In equatorial regions, the sun's rays hit Earth's surface at a more _______ angle than they do toward the poles. This means that the same amount of energy is spread over a _______ area in equatorial regions than in polar regions.
    perpendicular; smaller
  16. Which of the following statements about how energy moves through ecosystems is true?
  17. Approximately what percentage of Earth's surface is covered by ocean?
    71%
  18. Cool air is _______ warm area; as air cools, it _______.
    more dense than; sinks
  19. Vegetation patterns affect the reflectance of solar radiation, know as its
    albedo.
  20. Which of the following statements about salmon harvests is true?
    High salmon production in Alaska usually corresponds with low salmon production in Oregon.
  21. An association of populations of different species living in the same area is called a(n)
    community.
  22. Which of the following statements about biomes is false?
    Determination of biomes incorporates taxonomic similarities among organisms.
  23. The Coriolis effect causes moving air at Earth's surface to be deflected _______ in the Northern Hemisphere and _______ in the Southern Hemisphere.
    clockwise; counterclockwise
  24. During _______, Earth is closest to the sun. This occurs during the month of _______.
    perihelion; January
  25. The two hosts most responsible for the spread West Nile virus to most of the states in the U.S. were _______ and _______.
    mosquitoes; birds
  26. The mixing that occurs at upwelling replenishes _______ in the epilimnion and increases the level of _______ in the hypolimnion.
    nutrients; oxygen
  27. High pressure systems typically form over the Atlantic Ocean. If such systems did not form as often, _______ would become _______.
    South Carolina; drier
  28. Which of the following statements about the relationship between consumers and producers is true?
    Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms, whereas producers use energy from an external source to produce their own food.
  29. Which of the following statements about climate is true
    Climate has an effect on the rate of periodic disturbances in an area.
  30. Which of the following statements about the term ecology is true?
    Ecology involves the scientific study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms.
  31. Sensible heat flux includes convection and
    conduction.
  32. In which way does the alpine zone of a mountain differ from the Arctic tundra?
    There is more intense solar radiation in the alpine zone.
  33. The waters of Lake Tanganyika in Africa, the second largest freshwater lake in volume, are rather still, making it a(n) _______ system.
    lentic
  34. Which of the following factors most likely prevented the grasslands at the eastern edge of the Great Plains from becoming forest?
    Frequent fires
  35. Compared with the photic zone, temperatures in the pelagic zone are generally _______ and water pressure is _______.
    lower; higher
  36. The pronounced wet and dry seasons of tropical seasonal forests are primarily associated with
    movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone
  37. In terms of geographic area, I am one of the largest biomes in the world. Spruces, pines, and other conifers are abundant across my landscape. Although I do not receive much precipitation, my soils are usually very moist because of pervasive permafrost. Which biome am I?
    Boreal forest
  38. Which of the following statements about biomes is false?
    Determination of biomes incorporates taxonomic similarities among organisms.
  39. Plants can adjust leaf temperature by controlling the process of _______, which is accomplished via the opening and closing of stomates.
    transpiration
  40. The zone of turbulent flow close to the surface of an object is referred to as a _______ layer.
    boundary
  41. Which of the following types of organisms would most likely be able to tolerate the 90ºC environments that occur in hot springs?
    Bacteria
  42. According to the graph, when the environmental temperature drops below the lower critical temperature, the metabolic rate
    begins to increase in order to generate more heat.
  43. When solutes are dissolved in water, the solution loses energy, or _______ potential.
    osmotic
  44. Which of the following types of change occurs over generations rather than within a lifetime?
    Adaptation
  45. Assuming that the body shape of an animal is at least somewhat spherical, a considerable decrease in body size would _______ the surface area-to-volume ratio, and the ability to exchange heat with the environment would _______.
    increase; increase
  46. In the absence of succulent vegetation such as cacti, kangaroo rats satisfy most of their water requirements by
    generating water by oxidation of carbohydrates.

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