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Where does gas exchange take place
- Lower respiratory system
- The respiratory responds due to carbon dioxide
- A virus so it does not respond to antibiotics
- The transmission is airborne
S/S of flu
- Body aches
- Rhonchi or wheezing
- General malaise
Treatment/Prevention of flu
- Vaccine – IM injection or nasal; which is better
- Hand washing
- Avoiding crowds
How do you test for influenza
moist nose swab 10times in each nare
- Given IM
- Approved for 6 months or older
- Can be used in people at increased risk
Live attenuated Influenza Vaccine
- Given by nasal spray
- Approved for healthy people ages 2 to 49
- Given only to healthy people
Complications from Flu
- Otitis Media
- Typically follows URI
- Can be caused by bacteria, viruses, gases, or chemicals
- Inflammation of the alveoli
- Alveoli fill with fluid
- Decreased ventilation
- Cyanosis of lips and nail beds
S/S of pneumonia
- Similar to influenza
- Productive cough that is rust colored or purulent
TREATMENT - Viral pneumonia – known as walking
- Antibiotics if it is graduated from bronchitis
- Antitussives – cough syrup
- just because you are exposed does not mean that you active.
How do you confirm if a patient has TB
A sputum culture.
S/S of TB
- night sweats
- low-grade fever
How is TB determined to be confirmed relieved
Three sputum cultures must be obtained in order to be over a 6 week period.
This is a shot of dead TB. A POSITIVE MEANS EXPOSURE to TB or has dormant form of TB present
- A measurement is taken of the red bump; which is
- the determining factor; however, immunocompramized people have a smaller bump.
What type of mask must be used around patients diagnosed with TB
Special N95 mask
Who is more at risk of getting TB
People from foreign countries are at higher risk or places with substandard medical treatment facilities.
What is the treatment for TB
Vitamin B6 and INH
Side effect of INH
- peripheral neuritis
- Do not drink alcohol
- Reduction in airway diameter
- excessive mucus production
- tight chest, dry cough
- Respiratory therapy test performed by a pulmonologist to see your lung capacity such as forced vital capacity;
- inspiratory pressures for tidal volume, peak expiratory flow rate.
Treatment for asthma
- Singular - control/prevention
- Atrovent - rapid acting/quick treatment
- Productive cough that lasts 3 – 4 months with thick mucous with impaired cilia production
- Lasts forever
- Destruction of the alveolar walls
- no cough.
Cough persistent and productive thick sputum.
Pursed lips breathing
promotes carbon dioxide elimination.
Air enters the pleural space.
Blood enters the pleural space.
Local signs of inflammation
Types of inflammation
- Acute – short term
- Subacute – long term 6 months tops
- Chronic – can last a lifetime
- RICE = Rest, ice, compression, elevation
- Stop smoking
- Needs to have a reservoir in order to produce
- Bacteria causes disease and can be cured by antibiotics after culture
- Virus can not be cured by antibiotics
MODES OF TRANSMITION
- Indirect contact via mosquito or insects
- Airborne disease/droplet
- Direct contact – sexual contact
What are the body's defence mechanisms against infection
- Immune response
What are the steps/stages of the infectious process/disease
- Acute – severe symptoms
- Convalescent – recovery
What does it mean when there is a left shift on a laboratory report
the body is fighting the infection with increased WBC.
abnormal low count of neutrophils
What is the treatment for MRSA
- treatment is vancomyacin and patients are put in
What is important to tell a paitent about avoiding getting an infection
- Washing hands
natural resistance presence at birth
result of an immune response either active or passive
Passive Acquired Immunity
Artificially Acquired Immunity
injection for exposure only temporary such as snakebite.
Immunity that is either naturally aquired or artificially aquired
Naturally acquired immunity
antibodies from disease
Artificially acquired immunity
immediate response to antibiotics or latex
What is anaphylaxis
S/S of anapnhylaxis
laryngeal edema and vascular collapse
Treatment for anaphylaxis
Check the airway, Epinephrine, adrenaline