NUR 106

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Author:
stjpanther7
ID:
169697
Filename:
NUR 106
Updated:
2012-09-08 22:50:51
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RESPIRATION INFLAMMATION
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RESPIRATION AND INFLAMMATION
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  1. Where does gas exchange take place
    • Lower respiratory system
    • The respiratory responds due to carbon dioxide
  2. Flu-Influenza 
    • A virus so it  does not respond to antibiotics
    • The transmission is airborne 
  3. S/S of flu
    • Body aches
    • Rhonchi or wheezing
    • General malaise
    • Fever/chills
  4. Treatment/Prevention of flu
    • Vaccine – IM injection or nasal; which is better
    • Immunity
    • Hand washing
    • Avoiding crowds
  5. How do you test for influenza
    moist nose swab 10times in each nare 
  6. Inactivated vaccine
    • Given IM
    • Approved for 6 months or older
    • Can be used in people at increased risk
  7. Live attenuated Influenza Vaccine
    • Given by nasal spray
    • Approved for healthy people ages 2 to 49
    • Given only to healthy people
  8. Complications from Flu
    • Bronchitis
    • Otitis Media
    • Pneumonia
  9. Bronchitis
    • Typically follows URI
    • Can be caused by bacteria, viruses, gases, or chemicals
  10. S/S Bronchitis
    Non-productive cough
  11. Treatment Bronchitis
    Anitibotics
  12. Pneumonia
    • Inflammation of the alveoli
    • Alveoli fill with fluid
    • Decreased ventilation
    • Cyanosis of lips and nail beds
  13. S/S of pneumonia
    • Similar to influenza
    • Fever/chills
    • Fatigue
    • Productive cough that is rust colored or purulent
  14. TREATMENT  - Viral pneumonia – known as walking
    pneumonia
    • Antibiotics if it is graduated from bronchitis
    • Antitussives – cough syrup
    • Analgesics
    • Bronchodilators 
  15. Tuberculosis 
    • microbacteria
    • just because you are exposed does not mean that you active. 
  16. How do you confirm if a patient has TB
    A sputum culture.
  17. S/S of TB
    • hemoptysis
    • night sweats
    • fatigue
    • low-grade fever
    • malaise.
  18. How is TB determined to be confirmed relieved
    Three sputum cultures must be obtained in order to be over a 6 week period.
  19. PPD
    This is a shot of dead TB.  A POSITIVE MEANS EXPOSURE to TB or has dormant form of TB present

    • A measurement is taken of the red bump; which is
    • the determining factor; however, immunocompramized people have a smaller bump.
  20. What type of mask must be used around patients diagnosed with TB
    Special N95 mask
  21. Who is more at risk of getting TB
    People from foreign countries are at higher risk or places with substandard medical treatment facilities.
  22. What is the treatment for TB
    Vitamin B6 and INH
  23. Side effect of INH  
    • peripheral neuritis
    • hepatotoxicity. 
    • Do not drink alcohol
  24. Asthma
    • Reduction in airway diameter
    • excessive mucus production
    • tight chest, dry cough
  25. PFT
    • Respiratory therapy test performed by a pulmonologist to see your lung capacity such as forced vital capacity;
    • inspiratory pressures for tidal volume, peak expiratory flow rate.
  26. Treatment for asthma
    • Singular - control/prevention
    • Atrovent - rapid acting/quick treatment
  27. COPD
    • Productive cough that lasts 3 – 4 months with thick mucous with impaired cilia production
    • Lasts forever
  28. EMPHYSEMIA
    • Destruction of the alveolar walls
    • no cough.
  29. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS 
    Cough persistent and productive thick sputum.
  30. Pursed lips breathing
    promotes carbon dioxide elimination.
  31. Pneumothorax
    Air enters the pleural space.
  32. Hemothorax 
    Blood enters the pleural space.
  33. Local signs of inflammation
    • Pain
    • Redness
    • Immobility
    • Swelling
    • Heat
  34. Types of inflammation 
    • Acute – short term
    • Subacute – long term 6 months tops
    • Chronic – can last a lifetime
  35. Inflammation management
    • RICE = Rest, ice, compression, elevation
    • Antipyretics
    • Nutrition
    • Stop smoking
  36. INFECTION
    • Needs to have a reservoir in order to produce
    • Bacteria causes disease and can be cured by antibiotics after culture
    • Virus can not be cured  by antibiotics 
  37. MODES OF TRANSMITION
    • Indirect contact via mosquito or insects
    • Airborne disease/droplet
    • Direct contact – sexual contact
  38. What are the body's defence mechanisms against infection
    • Skin
    • Inflammation
    • Immune response
  39. What are the steps/stages of the infectious process/disease
    • Incubation
    • Prodromal
    • Acute – severe symptoms
    • Convalescent – recovery
  40. What does it mean when there is a left shift on a laboratory report
    the body is fighting the infection with increased WBC.
  41. Neutropenia
    abnormal low count of neutrophils
  42. SEPIS 
    WBC > than 12,000
  43. What is the treatment for MRSA
    • treatment is vancomyacin and patients are put in
    • isolation.
  44. What is important to tell a paitent about avoiding getting an infection
    • Isolation
    • Washing hands
    • Immunization
    • Education
  45. Innate 
    natural resistance presence at birth
  46. Acquired Immunity
    result of an immune response either active or passive
  47. Passive Acquired Immunity
    from mother
  48. Artificially Acquired Immunity 
    injection for exposure only temporary such as snakebite.
  49. Active Immunity
    Immunity that is either naturally aquired or artificially aquired
  50. Naturally acquired immunity
    antibodies from disease
  51. Artificially acquired immunity 
    vaccine
  52. Anaphylaxis
    immediate response to antibiotics or latex
  53. What is anaphylaxis
    Hypersensitivity Reaction
  54. S/S of anapnhylaxis
    laryngeal edema and vascular collapse 
  55. Treatment for anaphylaxis
    Check the airway, Epinephrine, adrenaline

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