Diseases of Urinary System-Part Duex a

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ambirc
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Diseases of Urinary System-Part Duex a
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2012-09-09 09:53:32
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Diseases Urinary System Part Duex
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Diseases of Urinary System-Part Duex a
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  1. What are Diurectics?
    Lowers Blood Pressure by modifiing salt and water excretion resulting in increased urine flow
  2. 5 types of Diuretics
    • Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors
    • Loop or high-ceiling diruretics
    • Thiazide diurectics
    • Potassium-sparing (-retaining) diurectics
    • Osmostic diurectics
  3. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - Mecchanism and site of action
    • Interfere with reabsorption of HCO3-
    • in the proximal tubule increasing Na+, K+, and HCO3-
    • excretion
  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors -therapeutic use
    Reduce intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma
  5. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - Toxicity and adverse effects
    • 1 - Metabolic acidosis
    • 2- sedation
    • 3- paresthesia
    • 4-Bone marrow suppression
    • 5-allergic reactions
  6. Loop or high-ceiling diuretics - Mechanism and site of action
    {1} Act on the ascending loop of Henle by inhibiting reabsorption of Na+, K+, and Cl-

    {2} Inhibit Ca2+ and Mg2+ reabsorption
  7. Loop or high-ceiling diuretics Therapeutic use
    Edematous States
  8. Loop or high-ceiling diuretics - Toxicity and advesre effects
    • 1- Electrolyte abnormalities - hypokalemia
    • 2- Ototoxicity
    • 3- Dysrhthmias
    • 4-Metabolic effects
  9. Thiazide diuretics - Mechanism and site of action
    Act on distal convoluted tubule by inhibiting reabsorption of Na+, K+, and Cl-
  10. Thiazide diuretics - Therapeutic uses
    • 1-Hypertension
    • 2-Peripheral edema
  11. Thiazide diuretics -Toxicity and adverse effects
    • 1- Electrolyte abnormalities -hpokalmia
    • 2-Hyperlipidemia
    • 3-Carbohydrate metabolism
    • 4- Decrease in glucose tolerance reducing efficacy of hypoglycemic drugs
    • 5-Sexual disfuntion
  12. Potassium-sparing (-retaining) diuretics Mechanism and site of action
    • {1}Act on the the collecting duct and late distal tubule to inhibit reabsorption of Na+ and promote K+
    • retention

    • {2} Two types
    •      {a} Renal sodium channel inhibitors
    •      {b} Aldosterone receptor antagonists
  13. Potassium-sparing (-retaining) diuretics Therapeutic uses
    Used in combination with K+ wasting diurectics to treat pheripheral edema and hypertention
  14.  Potassium-sparing (-retaining) diuretics Toxicity and adverse effects
    • 1- Hyperkalemia
    • 2- Gynexomastia
  15. Osmotic diuretics -Mechanism of and site of action
    • Prevent H2O reabsorption in the proximal tubule so more H2O is excreted as well as Na+, Cl-,
    • and K+
  16. Osmotic diuretics Therapeutic uses
    • 1- Acute renal failure
    • 2- Cerebral edema
    • 3-Glaucoma
  17. Osmotic diuretics Toxicity and adverse effects
    • 1- Hyponatremai
    • 2-Pulmonary edma
    • 3- Congestive heart Failure
  18. Chronic glomerulonephritis
    • 1- Advance Stage of a group of a kidney disorder
    • 2- persists for years with periods of remission
  19. Chronic glomerulonephritis - causes
    causes inflamatory changes with gradual, progressive desctruction of the glomeruli
  20. Chronic glomerulonephritis - Signs and Symptoms
    • 1- Specific gravity is low and fixed
    • 2- kidneys shrink in size
    • 3-Uremia causing
    •     a-Gastrointestinal, neuromuscular, and cardiovasular abnormalities
    •     b-headaches, dizziness, and faint vision
    •     c- convulstions and coma
  21. Chronic glomerulonephritis - Treatment 
    Dialysis
  22. Type of Chronic glomerulonephritis
    • 1- Good pastures's syndrome
    • 2- Systemic lupus erythematos or lupus nephritis
    • 3-IgA Nephropathy
  23.  Good pastures's syndrome
    A rare autoimmune lung disorger AKA antiglomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    the immune system makes antibodies that attack the protien collagen in the lungs and kidneys
  24.  Good pastures's syndrome - causes
    • 1- Genetic componet
    • 2-viruess
    • 3-inhaled hydrocarbon solvents
  25.  Good pastures's syndrome - signs and symptoms
    • 1- Kidney - poteinuria, hematuria, oliguria
    • 2-Respiratory - Hemophysis, coughing, dyspnea, chest pain
  26.  Good pastures's syndrome - Treatments
    • 1- Plasmapheresis
    • 2-Dialysis
    • 3-Kidney transplant
  27. Systemic lupus erythematosus or lupus nephritis
    An automimmune disease, that can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and/or lungs

    Damages different parts of the kidney - Interstitial nephritis, Nephrotic syndrome, membranou glomerulonephritits
  28. Systemic lupus erythematosus or lupus nephritis - Signs and symptoms
    • 1- Hematuria
    • 2-Proteinuria
    • 3-Hypertention
    • 3-Edema
  29. Systemic lupus erythematosus or lupus nephritis - Treatments
    {a} Glucocorticosteroids

    {b} Immunosuppressants
  30. IgA Nephropathy 
    • Results from the deposits of IgA in the glomeruli causeing episodes of blood in the urine
    •   1- can progress for years with no noticeable symptoms
    •  2- More common in men than women
  31. IgA Nephropathy - Signs and symptoms
    • Hematuria
    • peripheral edema
  32. IgA Nephropathy - treatments
    • 1- To control Hypertention and edema
    •     a - ace inhibitors
    •     b - peripheral edema
    • 2 - to contol inflammation
    •      <1> Glucocorticosteroids
    •      <2> Immunosuppressants
    •      <3> Fish oil
  33. Renal failure - 2 types
    • Acute Renal Failure 
    • Chronic Renal Failure
  34. Acute renal failure - 3 main causes include
    1 - A sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys - Heavey blood loss, injury, sepsis, dehydration

    2- Damage from medicines, poisions, or infections - anitbotics, NSAIDs, Antihypertenteices, contrast dyes

    3- A sudden blockage that stops urine from flowing out of the kidneys - Kideny stone, tumor, enlarged prostate gland
  35. Acute renal failure -signs and symptoms
    • {a}Oliguria
    • {b}Anuria
    • {c}Headache
    • {d}Gastrointestinal distress
    • {e}Ammonia odor on breath
    • {f}Hyperkalemia
  36. Acute Renal Failure - Treatments
    • {a}Restore blood volume and electrolytes
    • {b}Restrict dietary fluid intake
    • {c}Discontinue medicines causing problem  Dialysis
  37. Chronic Renal Failure
    The slow loss of kidney function over time AKA end-stage renal disease
  38. Chronic renal failure - Causes include
    a} Chronic glomerulonephritis

    {b} Hypertension

    {c} Diabetic nephropathy
  39. Chronic renal failure  Signs and symptoms
    • {a}Due to accumulation of waste products in blood such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine
    • {b}Affects the following systems
    • <1>Respiratory system
    • <2>Urinary system
    • <3>Digestive system
    • <4> Central nervous system
  40. Chronic renal failure Treatment
    • {a}Hemodialysis
    • <1>Indwelling catheters in arm artery and vein
    • <2>Peritoneal dialysis
    • {b} Kidney transplantation

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