Med Terms Chapter 1 and 2

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Med Terms Chapter 1 and 2
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2012-09-16 20:42:30
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Terms from chapter 1 and 2 of Med Terms
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  1. cyan/o
    BLUE
  2. erythr/o
    RED
  3. leuk/o
    WHITE
  4. melan/o
    BLACK
  5. poli/o
    GREY
  6. myel/o
    Spinal Cord
  7. my/o
    Muscle
  8. oste/o
    Bone
  9. neur/o
    Nerve
  10. gastr/o
    Stomach
  11. arthr/o
    Joint
  12. gastroenteritis
    Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
  13. enter/o
    Small Intestine
  14. suffix
    At the end of the word usually indicate a procedure, condition, disorder, or disease
  15. -plasty
    Surgical Repair
  16. -rrhaphy
    Surgical Suturing
  17. Neuroplasty
    The surgical repair of a nerve
  18. Neurorrhaphy
    Suturing together the ends of a severed nerve
  19. tonsill
    Tonsils
  20. -itis
    inflamation (also used to indicate infection)
  21. Tonsillitis
    An inflammation of the tonsils
  22. -ectomy
    Surgical Removal
  23. Tonsillectomy
    The surgical removal of the tonsils
  24. crani
    Skull
  25. cardi
    Heart
  26. -osis
    Abnormal condition or disease
  27. path
    Disease
  28. -ology
    The study of
  29. -algia
    Pain and Suffering
  30. Gastralgia
    Also known as stommachache, means pain of the stomach
  31. -dynia
    Pain (not as common as -algia)
  32. Gastrodynia
    Pain in the stomach
  33. Gastritis
    Inflammation of the stomach
  34. -megaly
    Enlargement
  35. Hepatomegaly
    Enlargement of the liver
  36. hepat/o
    Liver
  37. -malacia
    Abnormal softening
  38. Arteriomalacia
    Abnormal softening of the walls of an artery or arteries
  39. arteri/o
    Artery
  40. -necrosis
    Tissue death
  41. Aterionecrosis
    Tissue death or an artery or arteries
  42. -sclerosis
    Abnormal harderning
  43. Arteriosclerosis
    Abnormal harderning of the wall of an artery or arteries
  44. -stenosis
    Abnormal narrowing
  45. Ateriostenosis
    Abnormal narrowing of an artery or arteries
  46. -centesis
    A surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid
  47. abdominocentesis
    The surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid
  48. adbomin/o
    Abdomen
  49. -graphy
    The process of producing a picture or record
  50. Angiography
    The process of producing a radiographic (x-ray) study of blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium to make the blood vessels visible
  51. angi/o
    Blood vessel
  52. -gram
    A picture or record
  53. angiogram
    The resulting film that is produced by angiography
  54. -plasty
    Surgical repair
  55. Myoplasty
    Surgical repair of a muscle
  56. -scopy
    Visual examination
  57. Arthroscopy
    The visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
  58. -rrhage and -rrhagia
    Bleeding
  59. hemorrhage
    The loss of a large amount of blood
  60. hem/o
    Blood
  61. -rrhaphy
    Surgical suturing to close a wound. Includes the use of sutures, staples, or surgical glue
  62. Myorrhaphy
    The surgical suturing of a muscle wound
  63. -rrhea
    Flow or discharge
  64. Diarrhea
    Frequent flow of loose or watery stool
  65. dia- 
    Through
  66. -rrhexis
    Rupture
  67. Myorrhexis
    Rupture of a muscle
  68. nat
    Birth
  69. Pre-
    Before
  70. Prenatal
    The time and events before birth
  71. Peri-
    Surrounding
  72. Perinatal
    The time and events surrounding birth
  73. Post-
    After
  74. Postnatal
    The time and events after birth
  75. ab-
    Away from, negative, absent
  76. dextr/o
    Right side
  77. ex-
    out of, outside, away from
  78. macro-
    Large, abnormal size, or long
  79. mega- megal/o
    Large, great
  80. ad-
    toward, to, in the direction of
  81. sinistr/o
    Left side
  82. in- 
    in, into, not with
  83. micr/o, micro-
    small
  84. olig/o
    scanty, few
  85. Abnormal
    not normal or away from normal
  86. Addiction
    drawn toward or a strong dependence on a drug or substance
  87. dys-
    bad, difficult or painful
  88. Dysfunctional
    an organ or body part that is not working properly
  89. eu-
    good, normal, well or easy
  90. Eupnea
    easy or normal breathing
  91. hyper-
    excessive or increased
  92. Hypertension
    Higher than normal blood pressure
  93. hypo-
    deficient or decreased
  94. Hypotension
    lower than normal blooc pressure
  95. inter-
    between or amoung
  96. Interstitial
    Between, but not within, the parts of a tissue
  97. intra-
    within or inside
  98. Intamuscular
    within the muscle
  99. sub-
    under, less, or below
  100. Subcostal
    below a rib or ribs
  101. Super-, supra-
    above or excessive
  102. Supracostal
    above or outside the ribs
  103. laryng/o
    larynx or throat
  104. rhin/o
    nose
  105. ot/o
    ear
  106. otorhinolaryngology
    The study of ears, nose, and throat (ENT)
  107. otolaryngology
    The sudy of nose and larynx or throat
  108. -otomy
    Surgical incision
  109. appendic
    appendix
  110. -oma
    Tumor
  111. Endarterial
    pertaining to the interior or lining of an artery
  112. antheroma
    fatty deposit of an artery
  113. Arthralgia
    pain in a joint or joints
  114. appendectomy
    Surgical removal of the appendix
  115. -ostomy
    the surgical creation of an artificial opening to the body surface
  116. col
    colon
  117. colostomy
    the surgical creation of an artifical excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
  118. colotomy
    a surgical incision into the colon
  119. sign
    Objective evidence of a disease such as a fever
  120. symptom
    subjective evidence of a disease, such as a pain or a headache
  121. syndrome
    a set of signs and symptoms that occur together as part of a specific disease process
  122. diagnosis
    the identification of a disease
  123. differential diagnosis
    also known as a rule out is an attempt to determine which one of several diseases can be causing the signs and symptoms that are present
  124. prognosis
    a prediction of the probable course and outcome of a disorder
  125. acute
    condition has a rapid onset, a severe course, and a relatively short duration
  126. chronic
    condition is of long duration. 
  127. remission
    the temporary, partial, or complete disappearance of the symptoms of a disease without having achieved a cure
  128. disease
    condition in which one or more body parts are not functioning normally
  129. eponym
    a disease, structure, operation, or procedure named for the person who dicovered it or described it
  130. acronym
    a word formed from the initial letter of the major parts of a compound term
  131. fissure
    is a groove or a crack-like sore on the skin. Also describes normal folds in the contours of the brain
  132. fistula
    is an abnormal passage, usually between two internal organs or leading from an organ to the surface of the body. A fistula may be due to surgery, injury, or the draining of an abscess
  133. ileum
    the last and longest portion of the small intestine. (Spelt ilEum for intEstine)
  134. ilium
    is part of the hip bone (spelt ilIum for hIp)
  135. infection
    the invasion of the body by a pathogenic (disease producing) organism. It can remain localized (near the point of entry) or can be systemic (affecting the entire body). 
  136. Malaise
    is a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness that is often the first indication of an infection or other disease
  137. exudate
    fluid, such as pus, that leaks out of an infected wound
  138. inflammation
    is a localized response to an injury or to the destruction of tissues
  139. laceration
    a torn or jagged wound
  140. lesion
    pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury
  141. mucous
    specialized membranes that line the body cavities
  142. mucus
    the name of the fluid secreated by mucous membranes
  143. myc/o
    fungus
  144. mycosis
    any abnormal condition or disease caused by a fungus
  145. myelopathy
    any pathologic change or disease in the spinal cord
  146. myopathy
    any pathologic change or disease of muscle tissue
  147. -ologist
    specialist
  148. palpation
    an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts
  149. palpitation
    pounding or racing heart
  150. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  151. pyelitis
    an inflammation of the renal pelvis
  152. py/o
    pus
  153. pyoderma
    any acute inflammatory, pus forming bacterial skin infection 
  154. -derma
    skin
  155. pyr/o
    fever or fire
  156. pyrosis
    Also known as heartburn is discomfort due to the regurgitation of stomach acid
  157. supination
    the act of rotating the arm so that the palm of the hand is forward or upward
  158. sppuration
    the formation or discharge of pus
  159. triage
    the medical screening of patients to determine their relative priority of need and the proper placement of treatment
  160. trauma
    wound or injury
  161. viral
    pertaining to a virus
  162. vir
    virus
  163. virile
    having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male
  164. Anatomy
    the study of the structures of the body
  165. Physiology
    the study of the functions of the structures of the body
  166. anatomic position
    Standing straight up holding the arms so the palms face toward the front
  167. sagittal plane
    A vertical plane that divides the the body into unequal left and right portions
  168. midsagittal plane
    a vertical plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves (midline)
  169. frontal plane
    a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
  170. Transverse plane
    a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
  171. Ventral
    front or belly side of an organ
  172. dorsal
    back of the organ or body
  173. anterior
    situated in fron
  174. posterior
    situated in the back
  175. superior
    uppermost, above, or torward the head
  176. inferior
    lowermost, below, or toward the feet
  177. cephalic
    toward the head
  178. caudal
    toward the lwoer part of the body
  179. proximal
    situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
  180. distal
    situated farthest from the midline or beginning
  181. medial
    directed toward or nearer the midline
  182. lateral
    the direction toward, or nearer, the side of the body, away from the midline
  183. Dorsal cavity
    located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions and is divided into two portions (cranial cavity and spinal cavity)
  184. Cranial cavity
    located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain
  185. Spinal cavity
    located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord
  186. ventral cavity
    located alng the front of the body, contains the body organs that sustain homeostasis
  187. homeostasis
    the process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
  188. thoracic cavity
    also known as the chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and the lungs
  189. abdominal cavity
    contains primaryily the major organs of digestion (referred to as the abdomen)
  190. pelvic cavity
    the space formed by the hip bones and contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
  191. abdominopelvic cavity
    refers to both the abdominal and pelvic cavities
  192. inguinal
    relating to the groin
  193. right and left hypochondriac regions
    covered by the lower ribs
  194. chondr/i
    cartilage
  195. epigastric region
    located above the stomach
  196. epi-
    above
  197. right and left lumbar regions
    located near the inward curve of the spine
  198. lumb
    lower back
  199. umbilical region
    surrounds the umbilicus (belly button)
  200. right and left iliac regions
    located over the hip bones
  201. ili
    hip bone
  202. hypogastric
    below the stomach
  203. peritoneum
    a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
  204. parietal peritoneum
    outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
  205. mesentery
    a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
  206. visceral peritoneum
    the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
  207. retroperitoneal
    located behind the peritoneum
  208. retro-
    behind
  209. cytology
    the study of anatomy, physiology, pathologym and chemistry of the cell
  210. cytologist
    a specialist in the study and alaysis of the cells
  211. cyt
    cell
  212. cell membrane
    the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment
  213. cytoplasm
    the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
  214. nucleus
    surrounded by the nuclear membrane, is a structure within the cell
  215. stem cells 
    unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division
  216. Adult stem cells
    undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ
  217. Embryonic stem cells
    undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell
  218. genome
    complete set of genetic information of an organism
  219. Cystic fibrosis
    genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems
  220. Down Syndrome
    a genetic variation that is associated with a characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
  221. Hemophilia
    a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing
  222. Huntington's disease
    a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. The condition causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife
  223. Muscular dystrophy
    a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
  224. Phenylketonuria
    a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenlalanine hydroxylase is missing
  225. Tay-Sachs disease
    a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance buildup in tissues and nerve cells in the brain.
  226. Histology
    the study of structure, composition, and function of tissues
  227. Epithelial Tissues
    form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body. These tissues also form glands
  228. Epitherlium
    specialied epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membranes
  229. Endothelium
    specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands and organs
  230. connective tissues
    support and connect organs and other body tissues
  231. Dense connective tissues
    Bone and cartilage, form the joints and framework of the body
  232. Adipose tissue
    also known as fat, provies protecting padding, insulation
  233. loose connective tissue
    surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels
  234. liquid connective tissues
    which are blood and lymph, transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body
  235. Muscle tissue
    contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax
  236. Nerve tissue
    contains cells with the specialized ability to react to simuli and to conduct electrical impulses
  237. Aplasia
    is the defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
  238. a-
    withouth
  239. -plasia
    formation
  240. Dysplasia
    abdnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
  241. Hyperplasia
    the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
  242. Hypertrophy
    a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not the number, of cells in the tissues
  243. Exocrine glands
    secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body, such as sweat glands
  244. endocrine glands
    which produce horomones, do not have ducts
  245. Adenitis
    the inflammation of a gland
  246. aden
    gland
  247. adenocarcinoma
    a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
  248. carcin
    cancer
  249. -oma
    tumor
  250. adenoma
    is a benign tumor that arises in or resembles grandular tissue
  251. adenomalacia
    the abnormal softening of a gland
  252. adenosis
    any disease or condition of a gland
  253. adenosclerosis
    the abnormal hardening of a gland
  254. adenectomy
     the surgical removal of a gland
  255. etiology
    the study of the causes of diseases
  256. pathogen
    disease-producing microorganism such as a virus
  257. communicable disease
    a contagious disease that can be transmitted from one person to another
  258. indirect contact transmission
    a suceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface
  259. bloodborne transmission
    the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood (HIV)
  260. airborne transmission
    contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze
  261. food-borne and waterborne transmission
    caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill and pathogens present
  262. vector-borne transmission
    the spread of a certain disease due to the bite of a vector
  263. epidemiologist
    the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group
  264. endemic
    refers to the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area
  265. epidemic
    a sudden widespread outbreakof a disease within a specific population group or area
  266. pandemic
    refers to an outbreak of a disease occuring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
  267. functional disorder
    produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
  268. iatrogenic illness
    unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
  269. idiopathic disorder
    an illness without known cause
  270. infectious disease
    an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses
  271. nosocomial infection
    a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
  272. organic disorder
    produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body
  273. congenital disorder
    an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
  274. developmental disorder
    can result in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or the presence of an extra toe
  275. atresia
    describes the congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
  276. internist
    a physician who specializes in diagnosing the treatment diseases and disorders of the internal organs

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