Chem Ch 15

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Chem Ch 15
2010-05-01 17:10:08
Chemistry Chang

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  1. Bronsted Acid
    proton donor
  2. Bronstead base
    proton acceptor
  3. conjugate base
    the species that remains after the acid has donated its proton
  4. conjugate acid
    the species formed when a base accepts a proton
  5. amphoteric
    can be an acid or a base (example: water)
  6. ion constant of water
    Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 1.0 x10 -14 at 25deg C
  7. pH & pOH equations
    • pH = - log [H30+] or [H+]
    • pOH = - log [OH]
    • pH + pOH = 14
  8. strong acids
    • HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
    • the congugate base has no measureable stregnth
  9. strong bases
    • bases that ionize completely in water
    • soluble hydroxides fit this description
    • LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, & Ca(OH)2
  10. percent ionization
    • ionized acid concentration at equilibrium / initial concentration of acid x 100%
    • [H3O+] / [HA]initial x 100%
  11. salts that produce basic solutions
    • a weak acid and a STRONG base
    • cation is neutral - alkali metal or alkaline earth metal
    • anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid (HCOONa)
  12. salts that produce neutral solutions
    • strong acid and a strong base
    • cation is alkali metal or alkaline earth metal - can neither accept or donate a proton (Na+)
    • anion is the conjugate base of a strong acid - has no measureable strength (only 5 choices)
  13. salts that produce acidic solutions
    • strong acid and a weak base
    • anion is neutral (the conjugate base of a strong acid)
    • cation is acidic - conjugate acid of a weak base (NH4+)
    • OR cation is a small highly charged metal (Al3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Bi3+, Be2+) indirectly through water molecule
  14. the relationship between Ka and Kb
    Ka x Kb = Kw
  15. salt
    • an ionic compound formed by the reaction between an acid and a base
    • strong electrolytes - they completely dissociate when dissolved in water
  16. salt hydrolysis
    the reaction of the anion and/or cation of a salt with water
  17. Lewis acid
    electron pair acceptor
  18. Lewis base
    electron pair donor
  19. Lewis acid-base reaction
    • does not produce a salt and water, it produces a new bond
    • everything in bronsted would fit here, but reverse isn't true
    • oxidation-reduction reactions (redox)
  20. Ka
    [H30+] [CH3COO-] / [CH3COOH]
  21. Kb
    [CH3COOH] [OH-] / [CH3COO-]
  22. hydrohalic acids
    • acids of the halogens
    • weakest to strongest goes down periodic table: HF, HCl, HBr, HI
  23. oxoacids
    • acids that have oxygen in them
    • 1. different central atoms in the same group and same oxidation # increases bottom to top (HClO3 is stronger than (HBrO3)
    • 2. same central atom, but different # of attached groups (HClO4>HClO3>HClO2>HClO) increases with more attached
  24. carboxylic acids