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Decrease in cell size.... (reduces oxygen consumption and other cellular functions by decreasing the number and size of organelles and other structures)
Increase in cell size and increase in the amount of functioning tissue mass (results from an increased workload imposed on an organ or body part and is commonly seen in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue, which cannot adapt to an increase in workload through mitotic division and formation of more cells)
Increase in muscle mass/cells from working out
Increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue (It occurs in tissues with cells that are capable of mitotic division, such as the epidermis, intestinal epithelium, and glandular tissue).
*Important response of connective tissue in wound healing, during which proliferating fibroblasts and blood vessels contribute to wound repair (Ex: Pregnant uterus)
"Pregnant uterus" undergoes both _____ and _____ as a result of estrogen stimulation.
Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia
The swelling of gums around the teeth is an example of:
Reversible change in which one adult cell type (epithelial or mesenchymal) is replaced by another adult cell type
Characterized by deranged cell growth of a specific tissue that results in cells that very in size, shape, and organization (Minor degrees of dysplasia are associated with chronic irritation or inflammation).
- (although abnormal, it is adaptive in that it is potentially reversible after the irritating cause has been removed...but it is strongly implicated as a precursor to cancer)
3 categories of Substances that accumulate in the body:
- 1. Normal Body Substances (ie: lipids, proteins, carbs, melanin, bilirubin)
- 2. Abnormal endogenous products (ie: those resulting from inborn errors of metabolism)
- 3. Exogenous products (ie: environmental agents and pigments that cannot be broken down by the cell)
Abnormal accumulation of triglycerides on the liver:
- Fatty Liver (Lipids)
Deficiency of enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (liver and kidney):
Von Gierke disease
Signs/Symptons of Lead Poisoning (accumulation of lead in the body)
Accumulation of Carbon/Coal leads to:
- Black Lung Disease
Accumulations of Pigments:
Jaundice (Icterus) = characterized by yellow discoloration of tissue due to the retention of bilirubin (bile pigment)
Lipofuscin = yellow-brown pigment taht results from the accumulation of indigestible residues produced during normal cell turnover (wear-and-tear)
Carbon = exogenous pigment found in coal dust (black lung disease)
Inadequate supply of oxygen to tissue that is belowphysiologic levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood
What causes Hypoxia?
- *Decreased atmospheric O2
- *Respiratory disease
- *Inability of cells to use O2
What are the manifestations of Cellular Injury?
- *“Power Failure” in cells
- *Cannot maintain vital functions
What are the physical causes of Cellular Injury?
- Temperature: Hyperthermia & Hypothermia
- Hypothermia: Core temp <35° C (95°F).
- Hyperthermia: heat stroke. Core temp >40°C (104°F)
- Mechanical: due to mechanical forces as a result of body impact with another object
- Electrical Forces: Lightening, High voltage
Types of Radiation Injury:
- Ionizing = frequencies above the UV range...causes electrons to be knocked off atoms and molecules
- Non-Ionizing= frequencies below visible light
- UV= portion of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation just able visible range
Effects of Ionizing Radiation:
- *causes ionization of melecules and atoms in the cell by directly hitting the taget molecules in the cell, or by producing free radicals that interact with critical cell components
- *cell death
- *interrupt cell replication
- *cause variety of genetic mutations
What is the cell's initial response to radiation injury?
- *Disruption of the mitochondria (and other organelles)
- *Alterations in the cell membrane
- *Marked changes in the nucleus
Effects of UV radiation:
- *Disrupt intracellular bonds
- *Cause sunburn
- *Increase risk of skin cancer (including melanoma)
- *Can cause fibrosis and scarring
Effects of Non-ionizing Radiation:
(microwave, ultrasound, laser)
- *break chemical bonds
- *causes vibration and rotation of atoms and molecules
- (the vibration is converted to thermal injury)
Results of Chemical Radiation Injury:
- Interrupts cell function
- Co poisoning
Agents causing Chemical radiation injury:
- Cigarette smoke
What is melanoma a result of?
Melanin is produced in response to damage in epidermis
How are biological agents different from other injurious agents?
Biological Agents are able to replicate and can continue to produce their injurious effects...(range from submicroscopic viruses --> large parasites)
How do Biological agents injure a cell?
- *Viruses enter the cell and become incorporated into DNA synthesis
- *Some bacteria elabborate exotoxins that interfere with cellular production of ATP
- *Gram negative bacilli release endotoxins that cause cell injury and increased capillary permeability
Types of cell injury caused by Nutritional Imbalances:
*High saturated fat diets --> predisposition to atherosclerosis
- Ex. of injury due to lack of specific vitamins/minerales:
-Atom has single unpaired electron in outer orbit
Free Radical Formation
Results of cellular injury from Free Radical Formation:
- Loss of membrane integrity
- Destroys cell proteins
- Disrupts vital cell functions
- Damages DNA
- Possible cell death
(free radicals react with proteins, lipids, and carbs...thereby damaging membranes, inactivating enzymes, and damaging nucleic acids that make up DNA)
Injury associated with Hypoxia and Chemical (Toxic) Injury:
Manifestations of ATP depletion:
- Acute cellular swelling
- ICF edema
- Increased membrane permeability
- Decreased mitochondrial function
- Loss of enzymes, proteins, RNA
- (Impaired calcium homeostasis)
Highly selective process that eliminates injured and aged cells, thereby controlling the tissue regernation. Cells undergoing this have characteristic morphologic features as well as biochemical changes...
Process where worn out or over produced cells are eliminated:
Normal Cellular Death
Cell death in an organ or tissue taht is still part of a living person...Involves unregulated enzymatic digestion or cell components, loss of cell membrane integrity, with uncontrolled release of the products of cell death into the intracellular space, and initiation of the inflammatory response
Occurs with moist/wet gangrene;
Skin is moist, black, has blebs, odor, spreads rapidly
- Liquefaction Necrosis
distinctive form of coagulation necrosis in which the dead cells persist indefinitely as soft, cheeselike debris...more commonly found in the center of TB granulomas or tubercles and is though to result from immune mechanisms
Term given/applied when a considerable mass of tissue undergoes necrosis
Type of gangrene that results from infection of decitalized tissues by one of several Clostridium bacteria. (Clostridium perfringens)
- Gas gangrene
Impaired Calcium Homeostasis:
- Calcium functions as a messenger for the release of
- many enzymes. It is normally found in small amounts inside the cell due to active transport pumps. If ATP is not available, increased calcium inside the cell damages the cytoskeleton, cell membrane, proteins, and ATPases that breaks down ATP.