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scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure
scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things
Gross or macroscopic anatomy
- structured examined without a microscope
- Regional: studied area by area
- Systemic: studied system by system
- Surface: external form and relation to deeper structures as x-ray in anatomic imaging
- structures seen with the microscope
- Cytology: cellular anatomy
- Histology: study of tissues
examines processes in cells
focuses on operations of the nervous system
deals with heart and blood vessels
structural and functional changes caused by disease
chagnes in structure and function caused by exercise
6 levels of organization
- 1. Chemical: interaction of atoms (atoms combine to form molecules)
- 2. Cell: structural and functional unit of living organisms (molecules form organelles, which make up cells)
- 3. Tissue: group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them.
- 4. Organ: 1 or more tissues functioning together
- 5. Organ system: group or organs functioning together
- 6. Organism: any living thing
- Provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, and helps produce vitamin D.
- Consists of skin, hair, nails and sweat glands.
Provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals, and fat. Consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints.
Produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces. Consists of muschles attached to the skeleton by tendons.
Removes foreign substances from the blood an lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid blance, and absorbs fats from the digestive tract. Consits of the lympathic vessels, lymph nodes and other lymphatic organs.
Exchanges osygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood PH. Consists of the lungs and respiratory passages.
- Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes.
- Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs
- A major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiological processes, and intellectual functions.
- Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
- A major regulatory system that influences megabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions.
- Consists of glands, such as the pituiary, that secrete hormones.
- Transports nutrients, waste products, gases and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of the body temperature.
- Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
Removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance. Consists of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine.
Female reproductive system
Produces Cocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors. Consists of the ovaries, vagina uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures.
Male reproductive system
produces and transfers sperm cells to the femal and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of the testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis.
Characteristics of Life
- 1. Organization: condition in which there are specific relationships, interactions, and functions
- 2. Metabolism: all chemical reactions of the body
- 3. Responsiveness: ability to sense changes and adust
- 4. Growth: increase in size and/or number of cells
- 5. Development: changes in an organism over time
- Differentiation - change in cell structure and function from general to specific
- Morphogenesis: is change in the shape of tissues, organs, and the entire organism
- 6. Reproduction: new cells or new organisms
the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.
the ideal normal value of a variable
values of variables fluctuate around the set point to establish a normal range of values
- Receptor: monitors the value of some variable
- Control center: establishes the set point
- Effector: can change the value of the variable
- Stimulus: sets receptor off; deviation from the set point detected by the receptor
- Receptor: produced by the effector
Process of Negative feedback
example of negative feedback
- When a deviation occurs, the response is to make the deviation greater
- -unusual in normal, healthy individuals, leads away from homeostasis and can result in death
- -example of normal positive feedback: childbirth
- -example of harmful positive feedback: after hemorrhage, blood pressure drops and the heart's ability to pump blood decrease
positive feedback picture
Body parts and regions cont...
Median, Sagittal, Frontal (Coronal), transverse/cross, oblique
- Median: through the midline
- Sagittal: Same as median, but to the left or right of median
- Frontal (Coronal): divides body into anterior and posterior sections
- Transverse/Cross: divides body into superior and inferior sections
- Oblique: other than at a right angle
Planes through an organ
(longitudinal, transverse, oblique)
- Longitudinal: cut along the length of the organ
- Transverse/Cross: cut perpendicular to the longest orientation
- Oblique: cut at any other plane other than parallel or perpendicular to the longest orientation of the organ structure
Diaphragm & Mediastinum
- Diaphragm: divides body cavity into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
- Mediastinum: contains all structures of the thoracic cavity except the lungs (protects heart, aorta)
Cover the organs of trunk cavities and line the cavity
Visceral & Parietal Serous membrane
- Visceral: inner balloon wall
- Parietal: outal balloon wall
- Cavity between two membranes filled with lubricating serous fluid that is produced by the membranes
Specific Serous Membranes
- Pericardium - refers to heart
- Pleura - refers to lungs & thoracic cavity
- Peritoneum - refers to abdominopelvic cavity
- messentries: consist of 2 layers of peritoneum fused together, connect the visceral peritoneum of some abdominopelvic organs to the parietal peritoneum on the body wall or to the visceral peritoneum of other abdominopelvic organs....they ancher the organs to the body all and provide a pathway for nerves and blood vessels to reach organs