med-surge Key terms chapters 11,13,,33,34

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med-surge Key terms chapters 11,13,,33,34
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2012-09-09 16:36:41
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med surge Key terms chapters 11 13 32 33 34 Snow Nursing
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med-surge Key terms chapters 11,13,32,33,34 Snow Nursing
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  1. Ageism
    ·         Ageism – is a systematic stereotyping and discrimination against people because of their age, most often directed toward older adults.
  2. Cataract
    ·         Cataract – is clouding or opacity of the normally transparent lens within the eye
  3. ction deafness
    ·         Conduction deafness – is a blockage of the ear canal caused by excessive wax buildup, abnormal structures, or infection.
  4. Gerontological nurse
    ·         Gerontological nurse – typically refers to professional nurses and advanced-level practitioners, nurses holding national certification in the specialty of gerontological nursing.
  5. Gerontology
    ·         Gerontology – is the study of aging, can be dated to the early 1950s and includes aging research, education and training activities
  6. Glaucoma
    ·         Glaucoma – is characterized by atrophy of the optic nerve usually associated with elevated pressure of the fluid in the eye
  7. Kyphosis
    ·         Kyphosis – is the term applied to the curvature of the thoracic spine and gives rises to the vent-over appearance of some older adults
  8. Gerontology
    ·         Gerontology – is the study of aging, can be dated to the early 1950s and includes aging research, education and training activities
  9. Glaucoma
    ·         Glaucoma – is characterized by atrophy of the optic nerve usually associated with elevated pressure of the fluid in the eye
  10. Presbycusis
    ·         Presbycusis – is the term for hearing loss associated with old age
  11. Presbyopia
    ·         Presbyopia – affects the shape of the lens
  12. Sensorineural Deafness
    ·         Sensorineural Deafness – results from damage to nerve tissue as in result of exposure to loud noises, disease, and certain drugs
  13. Allergen
    ·         Allergen – an antigen that causes a hypersensitive reaction
  14. Antibodies
    ·         Antibodies – are proteins that are created in response to specific antigens
  15. Antigen
    ·         Antigen – any substance that is capable of stimulating a response from the immune system
  16. Autoimmunity
    ·         Autoimmunity – breakdown in tolerance and subsequent damage to self
  17. Bacteria
    ·         Bacteria – one-celled microorganisms capable of multiplying rapidly with a susceptible host
  18. Communicable disease
    ·         Communicable disease – Illness caused by infectious organisms or their toxins that can be transmitted either directly or indirectly from one person to another.
  19. Contamination
    ·         Contamination – presence of an infectious organism on a body surface or an object
  20. Fungi
    ·         Fungi – Vegetable-like organisms that feed on organic matter and are capable of producing disease
  21. Immunity
    ·         Immunity – Resistance to or protection from a disease
  22. Immunodeficiency
    ·         Immunodeficiency – condition in which the immune system is unable to defend the body against a foreign invasion of antigens
  23. Infection
    ·         Infection – Condition in which the body is invaded by infectious organisms that multiply, causing injury and a local inflammatory response that may progress to a systemic response
  24. Inflammation
    ·         Inflammation – nonspecific immune response that occurs in response to bodily injury
  25. Medical asepsis
    ·         Medical asepsis – limiting the spread of microorganisms; often called the clean technique
  26.  Surgical asepsis
    ·         Surgical asepsis – elimination of microorganisms from any object that comes in contact with the patient; is often called sterile technique
  27. Viruses
    ·         Viruses – infectious microorganisms that can live and reproduce only within living cells; are capable of causing illness, inflammation and cell destruction
  28. Acquired immunity
    Acquired immunity: specific to a particular pathogen and is activated only when needed. Two types of acquired immunity (1) antibody mediated and (2) cell mediated.
  29. Antibody
    Antibody: Protein that is created in response to an antigen. More specifically, when B cell Ig binds with a specific antigen, the B cell is stimulated to produce plasma cells and memory B cells. Once the Ig is released from the membrane of either a B cell or a plasma cell, it is called an antibody.
  30. ·         HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy)Pg. 654
    Antigen: a foreign protein that is capable of stimulating a response from the immune system.
  31. ·         HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy)Pg. 654
    ·         Abbreviation for highly active antiretroviral therapy.  Combination of antiretroviral drugs that may be prescribed when the HIV viral load reaches certain levels. 
  32. HIV
    ·         HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)p. 646- Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus.  HIV positive condition in which the blood has antibodies for HIV, meaning the individual has been infected with the virus.
  33. Protease Inhibitor
    ·         Protease Inhibitor Pg. 655- Class of medications used to treat or prevent such viral infections as HIV and hepatitis C.  These medications prevent viral replication by inhibiting the activity of protease.
  34. Acquired immunity
    immunity spacific to a pathogen, and activated when only needed. there are 2 types of these; cell mediated, and antibidymediated.
  35. Antibody
    Aprotien that is created by B cells in response to a specific antigen.
  36. Antibody mediated immunity:
    Defensive response by B cells assisted by TH cells that is aimed at invading organisms, such as bacteria
  37. Antigen
    Substance, usually protein that is capable of stimulating a response from the immune system.
  38. Cell-mediated immunity:
    Tc cells recognize forigne antigens in cells, they succret cytotoxic substances to destroy them, this can really screw with transplants from other hoasts.
  39. Compromised host precautions
    Compromised host precautions: ways to minimize a pt’s exposure to infections agents. Study Box 33-3 on page 635. Includes: pt should have private room with a “compromised host precaution” sign posted on the door, all persons entering the room should wash their hands before touching the pt, monitor vital signs every 2-4 hours, invasive procedures used at a minimum, etc.
  40. Eicosanoid:
    Eicosanoid: a class of fatty acids that regulate blood vessel vasodilation, temperature elevation, WBC activation, and other physiologic processes involved in immunity.
  41. Immunity
    Immunity: resistance to or protection from a disease
  42. Immunoglobulin
    Immunoglobulin: IgE. When IgE identifies a foreign antigen, IgE triggers basophils to release histamine. Histamine increases blood circulation, quickly bringing other white blood cells to the site of infection. IgE = his stuff mean to infection
  43. Innate immunity:.
    Innate immunity: present at birth; is operational at all times, whether a pathogen is present or not. Innate immunologic systems include anatomic and physiological barriers, inflammatory response, and the ability of certain cells to phagocytose foreign invaders.
  44. Pathogen:
    Pathogen: disease-causing microorganism
  45. Phagocytes
    Phagocytes: certain WBC’s (e.g. neutro-phils, monocytes, macrophages) that engulf and destroy invading pathogens, dead cells, and cellular debris.

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