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- atoms with certain number of nuerons have unique stability.
- # of stable Nuclides
- Z N # of Nuclides
- even even 157
- even even 53
- odd even 50
- odd odd 5
- Other magic numbers: Z = 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126
- Position emission: emitts position 01e
- Position: an e- that changed charge from negitive to positive like a proton but still is an electron.
- 3015P --> 3014Si + 01e
- Electron Capture: when neucleus captures an e- from the inner orbital and charges it to a neutron 10N.
- 9244Ru + 0-1e --> 9243Tc
- ability to ionize molecules and atoms.
- Ionization strength between alpha, beta, and gamma ray
- alpha decay > beta decay > gamma decay
- ability to penitrate matter.
- gamma ray > beta decay > alpha decay
- Gamma ray emission: 42He & gamma are released.
- 23892U --> 23490Th +00(gamma) + 42He
Radio Carbon dating
- used to estimate the age of acncient fossils.
- t1/2 "half life" = 5730 years
- the splitting of a Uranium nucleus:
- 23892U + 10N --> 14056Ba + 9336Kr +310N + energy
enough U-235 to create a sustained chain reaction to occur.
Nuclear Power Plants
- Control rods: absorb excess neutrons
- mass defect & nuclear binding energy.
- E=mc2 --> nuclear binding energy.
Types of radioactivity
- A = Mass #
- Z = atomic # aka # of protons (p+)
- X = chem symbol
- N = A - Z
- N = # of nuetrons
C14 / C12
- ln [ (C14/C12) / (C14/C12)t] = (1.2 x 104)t
- note: [C14/C12]0 = (1.2x10-12)=A0 = C14
- A tube that contains an electrolyte that connects the two half-cells of a galvanic cell.
- f(x): allows the movement of ions required to keep the solution electrically neutral. (essential to complete the circuit).
Spontaneous redox reaction in which the electron transfer is forced to take place through a wire. SPONTANEOUS
Pu - 242
24294Pu --> 42He + 23892U