Bone Marrow Lab

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  1. What is the granulocytic series?
    • myeloblast
    • promyelocyte
    • myelocyte
    • band
    • mature granulocyte
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    What is this?
    myelocyte - small cell, nucleus is round to oval, nucleus often eccentric, 1:1 ratio nucleus:cytoplasm
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    What are the three arrows pointing to?
    • adipose cell
    • myelocyte (has no nucleolus)
    • smearing
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    What are these arrows pointing to?
    • from the top, clockwise around...
    • myeloblast (nucelolus present), rubricyte, band, metamyelocyte, rubriblast (nucleolus present)
  5. Describe granulocytic cells.
    • lighter color cytoplasm than reds
    • round nucleus only in blast and progranulocyte stage, then the nucleus indents in the more mature stages
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    What is this cell?
    rubriblast - round cell with round nucleus, narrow rim of dark/bright blue cytoplasm, large cell, 1 - 2 nucleoli within nucleus
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    myeloblast - round/oval nucleus, 1 or more nucleoli, small to moderate amount of blue cytoplasm
  8. How does peripheral blood get mixed into a bone marrow sample?
    • too much back pressure on the syringe or continuing sample collection after the needle hub shows the presence of marrow
    • contamination also occurs when a blood filled sinus is encountered while placing the bone marrow needle.
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    • esoinophilic myelocyte
    • eosinophil
    • prorubricyte
    • rubricyte
    • band
    • metarubricyte
    • metamyelocyte
    • myelocyte
    • metarubricyte
  10. Which stage in the myeloid series does mitosis stop?
    metamyelocyte
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    What is this cell?
    • Metamyelocyte
    • nucleus indents, chromatin more condensed, may see granules in cytoplasm, mature into bands
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    • promyelocyte/progranulocyte
    • no nucleolus, perinuclear clear zone, pinkish cytoplasmic granules
  13. Describe a rubricyte.
    • smaller cell
    • round nucleus
    • coarsely granular chromatin: more condensed
    • several types seen - cytoplasm bright to pale blue
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    • prorubricyte
    • similar to rubriblast (except no nucleolus present), lacey (vesicular) chromatin
    • perinuclear clear zone
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    What is this?
    • osteoclast
    • large cell
    • distinct individual multiple nuclei
    • confused with neoplasia or megakaryocytes
    • breaks down bone
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    What is this?
    • osteoblast
    • rarely seen in adults, oval/eccentric nucleus with perinuclear clear zone, large amount of cytoplasm, often see nucleoli
  17. What is a nucleolus?
    • a small round-oval structure within the nucleus of cells.
    • contain RNA and protein 
    • seen in immature cells
    • stains lighter than the surrounding nucleus
  18. What is chromatin clumping?
    • appears with int he nucleus 
    • deeply basophilic and sometime nearly black staining
    • perimeter is not smooth
  19. Cellularity is _____ dependant.
    age
  20. What are the normal values of cellularity?
    • young animals 75% cells with 25% fat cells
    • mature animals 50% bone marrow cells with 50% fat cells
    • geriatric animals 25% cells with 75% fat
  21. What are fat cells called?
    adipocytes
  22. How do you perform a bone marrow differential?
    • Scan slide on 10x and 40x for large cells and to find the monolayer
    • move to oil once you find the monolayer
    • count 500 precursor cells including metarubricytes and bands
    • include megakaryoctes, plasma cells, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts in your count
    • after 500 cell are counted record the total for each series
    • calculate the relative differential count and record
    • include "other" cells as well as myeloid and erythroid in this differential
    • example:  500 total cells counted...20 rubriblasts counted...20/500=0.04...0.04 x 100 = 4%
  23. If you are unsure how to classify a cell, always go with the more _____ cell.
    mature
  24. When making decisions about individual cells closely observe the following criteria:
    • size of cell in comparison to a mature cell
    • amount and color of cytoplasm
    • not if granules or clear areas are present in the cytoplasm
    • size and shape of nucleus
    • nuclear detail, including presence of nucleoli and chromatin patterns
    • note presence or absence of a perinuclear clear zone
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    Where is this bone marrow being taken?
    iliac crest
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    Where is this bone marrow being taken?
    trochanteric fossa
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    What is wrong in this field?
    granulocytic hyperplasia
  28. What is myeloproliferative disorders?
    • cell production out of control
    • immature cells > mature cells
    • a type of neoplaisa
    • named by cell type involved (may not be able to identify)
  29. What is a Jamshidi needle used for?
    • to obtain bone marrow core sample
    • used for histology
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    What are these?
    • lymphoblasts
    • large lymphs with nucleolus
  31. What is a rosenthal needle used for?
    • to obtain bone marrow aspirate samples
    • used for cytology
  32. Name the thrombocyte series.
    • megakaryoblast
    • promegakaryocyte
    • megakaryocyte
  33. What causes contamination of bone marrow sample with peripheral blood?
    • too much back pressure on the syringe or continuing sample collection after the needle hub shows the presence of marrow
    • can also occur when a blood filled sinus is encountered while placing the bone marrow needle
  34. What is nuclear streaming?
    • long, basophilic streaks seen on bone marrow and cytology slides are often due to the destruction of nuclei during preparation
    • neoplastic cells often have increased fragility and the nuclei may rupture more easily
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    What is this?
    • rubricyte
    • smaller cell
    • round nucleus
    • coarsely granular chromatin - more condensed
    • cytoplasm bright to pale blue
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    What is this?
    • plasma cell
    • end-stage of B-lymph development
    • produce antibodies
    • round cell
    • round eccentric nucleus
    • clumpy chromatin
    • perinuclear clear zone
  37. What is the perinuclear clear zone?
    golgi apparatus near nuclear - doesn't take up stain
  38. What is normal cellularity for a mature animal?
    50% cells, 50% fat
  39. What are the 2 types of bone marrow sampling?
    • core biopsy
    • bone marrow aspirate
  40. What is aplasia?
    • no RBCs or WBCs
    • lack of cell production
    • hard to find 500 WBCs + RBCs despite good sample
    • best diagnosed on histopathology
  41. What can cause aplasia?
    immunosuppressive drugs and viruses
  42. What is hemosiderin?  What does increased hemosiderin in the bone marrow mean?
    • a golden brown-black, granular deposit that is an insoluble form of iron
    • increased hemosiderin in the bone marrow may be the result of intravascular hemolysis
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    What is this?
    • mast cell
    • very low numbers in healthy animals
    • round cell
    • centrally placed nucleus
    • small purple granules fill cytoplasm - may obstruct nucleus
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    What are these?  What is wrong?
    • mast cells
    • mast cell tumor
    • increase in mast cells
    • purple cytoplasmic granules may obscure the nucleus
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    What is this?
    • metarubricyte
    • dark nucleus
    • smaller cell - almost the size of a mature RBC
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    What is this?
    eosinophilic myelocyte
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    What is this?
    eosinophilic metamyelocyte
  49. Describe a rubriblast.
    • large cell
    • narrow rim of intensely basophilic cytoplasm
    • round nucleus with fine granular chromatin
    • 1 - 2 nucleoli
  50. Describe a prorubricyte.
    • similar to a rubriblast except...
    • nucleoli are no longer visible
    • chromatin is coarser/looks lacey
    • perinuclear clear zone may be present
  51. Describe a rubricyte.
    • smaller cell with coarse chromatin and more condensed
    • round nucleus
    • cytoplasm varies from basophilic to reddish-blue depending on amount of hemoglobin
  52. Describe metarubricyte.
    • even smaller cell
    • nucleus has become pyknotic (dark, condensed, small) without any light spaces
    • nucleus may be eccentric
    • cytoplasm is like a polychromatophil
  53. Describe myeloblast.
    • large, round to irregularly shaped cell
    • finely stippled nuclear chromatin/lacey
    • one or more prominent nucleoli
    • cytoplasm is blue-gray and no granules are present
  54. Describe progranulocyte (aka promyelocyte).
    • large, round to irregularly shaped cell
    • more cytoplasm than myeloblast
    • nucleus round to oval
    • cytoplasm - light blue-gray with scattered, small red/purple granules (primary granules)
    • nucleoli are absent or indistinct
    • chromatin becoming coarse
  55. Describe myelocyte.
    • smaller than progranulocyte
    • nucleus is usually round, may be beginning to indent
    • chromatin beginning to clump
    • non specific (azurophlic granules) no longer visible
    • definitive (larger) cytoplasmic granules may be visible depending on type of myelocyte
    • cytoplasm less basophilic
  56. Describe metamyelocyte.
    • similar to myelocyte except...
    • cytoplasm clear to slightly granular (except eos and baso)
    • nucleus indents to become kidney bean shaped, mitosis no longer occurs
    • chromatin coarse with clumps
  57. Describe megakaryoblast.
    • large cell
    • single nucleus
    • deep basophilic cytoplasm
  58. Describe promegakaryocyte.
    • large cell
    • contains 2 - 4 separate or fused nuclei
    • basophilic cytoplasm
  59. Describe megakaryocyte.
    • gigantic cell
    • multiple nuclei joined in a lobed mass
    • cytoplasm may be basophilic or violet
    • aciophilic cytoplasmic granules may be present
  60. Describe a plasma cell.
    • round, eccentric nucleus with coarse chromatin 
    • pale perinuclear clear zone may be present
    • large amount of basophilic cytoplasm
    • rarely contain round cytoplasmic structures (russell bodies) - if russell bodies are present it is called a Mott cell
  61. Describe osteoblast.
    • large cell
    • may resemble plasma cells except larger and less condensed chromatin
    • eccentric round to oval nucleus
    • nucleoli may be present
    • foamy basophilic cytoplasm
    • perinuclear clear zone may be present
  62. Describe osteoclast.
    • giant cell
    • multinucleated, nuclei are distinctly separate
    • blue cytoplasm
    • cytoplasmic granules
  63. What are the things we need to describe when describing a bone marrow cell?
    • cell:  size, shape, N:C (use numbers for ratios)
    • nucleus:  shape, chromatin pattern (vesicular, lacey, etc), inclusions (nucleolus)
    • cytoplasm:  color, perinuclear clear zone

Card Set Information

Author:
kris10leejmu
ID:
169857
Filename:
Bone Marrow Lab
Updated:
2012-11-15 02:26:25
Tags:
Lab Tech ll Practical
Folders:

Description:
Midterm Practical Lab Tech ll
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