Bio Cptr 3
Card Set Information
Bio Cptr 3
Human Biology Chapter 3
Scientific theory stating that cells are the smallest units of life, all organisms consist of one or more cells, and all cells come from pre-exisitng ones.
The contents of a cell between the outer plasma membrane and the nucleus.
A cell that has a nucleus containing its DNA.
Any of the compartments and sacs in a cell.
Covering that encloses a cell's internal parts.
A cell in which the DNA is not contained inside a nucleus.
Bacteria are prokaryotic cells.
Comparison of Eukaryotic and Projaryotic Cells
Plasma Membrane yes yes
DNA-containing Region yes yes
Cytoplasmyes yes yes
Nucleus Inside Membrane yes no
The structure of the plasma membrane, in which two parallel layers of phospholipids form with their heads facing outward and their tails facing inward.
The physical relationship by which the volume of a growing three-dimensional object increases faster than its surface area does.
The photograph of an image formed by a microscope.
The use of a microscope to view objects, including cells, that are not visible to the unaided eye.
A property of the cell plasma membrane, in which the membrane allows only certain substances to cross it.
A cell's DNA molecules and proteins attached to them.
An individual DNA molecule and attached proteins.
A double membrane that separates the inside of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. It has many pores.
Organelle that encloses a eukaryotic cell's DNA.
A cluster of the RNA and proteins used to assemble ribosomes from their subunits.
System of membrane-bound cell organelles that mainly modify new proteins, build lipids, and package the completed moelcules (as in vesicles).
Channel-like organelle, Lipids are assembled in smooth ER. In rough ER, side chains are added to newly formed polypeptides.
Series of flattened saclike organelles in which new lipids and polypeptide chains are processed into their final form.
Organelle where protein polypeptide chains are built.
A small, membrane-bound sac in cells. Some vesicles transport substances others contain digestive enzymes.
Vesicle in which enzymes disgest (break down) unwanted molecules.
Vesicle in which enzymes break down fatty acids and amino acids.
Organelle that produces ATP, the main cell fuel.
Cell structures that give rise to microtubules.
Short, bendable structures built of microtubules.
The cell's internal structural framework.
Whiplike structures built of microtubules.
Cytoskeleton filaments that anchore proteins (actin and myosin) in the cytosol and add strength to it.
The largest elements of the cytoskeleton.
Filaments in the cytoskeleton that reinforce or anchor cell parts.
A difference in the number of molecules or ions of a substance in two neighboring regions.
The movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Said of a fluid containing more of a given solute than a fluid on the other side of a selectively permeable membrane.
Said of a fluid having less of a given solute than the fluid on the other side of a selectively permeable membrane.
Said of fluids separated by a selectively permeable membrane and that contain equal amounts of a given solute.
The diffusion (passive transport) of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
The diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane; does not require ATP energy.
Movement of substances across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient, using energy from ATP.
Process by which a cell takes in a large molecule or particle by forming a vesicle that encloses it and moves it into the cell cytoplasm.
Process in which a vesicle enclosed and moves a large molecule or particle to the cell surface and expels it.
Endocytosis of a cell or other organic matter.
Area on the surface of an enzyme where the enzyme and its substrate can interact.
Metabolic activity that builds large molecules from smaller ones.
A cycle in which a phosphate attaches to ADP, forming ATP, then ATP transfers a phosphate elsewhere, becoming ADP again.
Metabolic activity that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones.
The chemical reactions in cells.
The particular kind of molecule that interacts with a given enzyme.
The ovrall aerobic (oxygen-using) process by which cells break down organic molecules to make ATP.
Electron Transport System
The chain of reactions in mitochondria that uses energy from electrons to generate many ATP molecules.
Process that breaks apart glucose molecules, forming pyruvate, in the first stage of cellular respiration.
Process that produces energy-rich compounds (NADH and FADH2) that deliver elentrons to electron transport systems in mitochondria. The cycle also produces a small amount of ATP.
The transfer of a phosphate group to a molecule.