Bio Cptr 3

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Bio Cptr 3
2012-09-09 17:06:07
Biology C3

Human Biology Chapter 3
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  1. Cell Theory
    Scientific theory stating that cells are the smallest units of life, all organisms consist of one or more cells, and all cells come from pre-exisitng ones.
  2. Cytoplasm
    The contents of a cell between the outer plasma membrane and the nucleus.
  3. Eukaryotic Cell
    A cell that has a nucleus containing its DNA.
  4. Organelle
    Any of the compartments and sacs in a cell.
  5. Plasma Membrane
    Covering that encloses a cell's internal parts.
  6. Prokaryotic Cell
    A cell in which the DNA is not contained inside a nucleus.

    Bacteria are prokaryotic cells.
  7. Comparison of Eukaryotic and Projaryotic Cells
    •                                                 Eukaryotic        Prokaryotic
    • Plasma Membrane                         yes                    yes
    • DNA-containing Region                 yes                    yes
    • Cytoplasmyes                                yes                    yes
    • Nucleus Inside Membrane             yes                     no
  8. Lipid Bylayer
    The structure of the plasma membrane, in which two parallel layers of phospholipids form with their heads facing outward and their tails facing inward.
  9. Surface-to-Volume Ratio
    The physical relationship by which the volume of a growing three-dimensional object increases faster than its surface area does.
  10. Micrograph
    The photograph of an image formed by a microscope.
  11. Microscopy
    The use of a microscope to view objects, including cells, that are not visible to the unaided eye.
  12. Selective Permeability
    A property of the cell plasma membrane, in which the membrane allows only certain substances to cross it.
  13. Chromatin
    A cell's DNA molecules and proteins attached to them.
  14. Chromosome
    An individual DNA molecule and attached proteins.
  15. Nuclear Envelope
    A double membrane that separates the inside of the nucleus from the cytoplasm.  It has many pores.
  16. Nucleus
    Organelle that encloses a eukaryotic cell's DNA.
  17. Nucleolus
    A cluster of the RNA and proteins used to assemble ribosomes from their subunits.
  18. Endomembrane System
    System of membrane-bound cell organelles that mainly modify new proteins, build lipids, and package the completed moelcules (as in vesicles).
  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Channel-like organelle,  Lipids are assembled in smooth ER.  In rough ER, side chains are added to newly formed polypeptides.
  20. Gogli Body
    Series of flattened saclike organelles in which new lipids and polypeptide chains are processed into their final form.
  21. Ribosome
    Organelle where protein polypeptide chains are built.
  22. Vesicle
    A small, membrane-bound sac in cells.  Some vesicles transport substances others contain digestive enzymes.
  23. Lysosome
    Vesicle in which enzymes disgest (break down) unwanted molecules.
  24. Peroxisome
    Vesicle in which enzymes break down fatty acids and amino acids.
  25. Mitochondrion
    Organelle that produces ATP, the main cell fuel.
  26. Centrioles
    Cell structures that give rise to microtubules.
  27. Cilia
    Short, bendable structures built of microtubules.
  28. Cytoskeleton
    The cell's internal structural framework.
  29. Flagella
    Whiplike structures built of microtubules.
  30. Intermediate Filaments
    Cytoskeleton filaments that anchore proteins (actin and myosin) in the cytosol and add strength to it.
  31. Microtubules
    The largest elements of the cytoskeleton.
  32. Microfilaments
    Filaments in the cytoskeleton that reinforce or anchor cell parts.
  33. Concentration Gradient
    A difference in the number of molecules or ions of a substance in two neighboring regions.
  34. Diffusion
    The movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
  35. Hypertonic
    Said of a fluid containing more of a given solute than a fluid on the other side of a selectively permeable membrane.
  36. Hypotonic
    Said of a fluid having less of a given solute than the fluid on the other side of a selectively permeable membrane.
  37. Isotonic
    Said of fluids separated by a selectively permeable membrane and that contain equal amounts of a given solute.
  38. Osmosis
    The diffusion (passive transport) of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  39. Passive Transport
    The diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane; does not require ATP energy.
  40. Active Transport
    Movement of substances across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient, using energy from ATP.
  41. Endocytosis
    Process by which a cell takes in a large molecule or particle by forming a vesicle that encloses it and moves it into the cell cytoplasm.
  42. Exocytosis
    Process in which a vesicle enclosed and moves a large molecule or particle to the cell surface and expels it.
  43. Phagocytosis
    Endocytosis of a cell or other organic matter.
  44. Active Site
    Area on the surface of an enzyme where the enzyme and its substrate can interact.
  45. Anabolism
    Metabolic activity that builds large molecules from smaller ones.
  46. ATP/ADP Cycle
    A cycle in which a phosphate attaches to ADP, forming ATP, then ATP transfers a phosphate elsewhere, becoming ADP again.
  47. Catabolism
    Metabolic activity that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones.
  48. Metabolism
    The chemical reactions in cells.
  49. Substrate
    The particular kind of molecule that interacts with a given enzyme.
  50. Cellular Respiration
    The ovrall aerobic (oxygen-using) process by which cells break down organic molecules to make ATP.
  51. Electron Transport System
    The chain of reactions in mitochondria that uses energy from electrons to generate many ATP molecules.
  52. Gycolysis
    Process that breaks apart glucose molecules, forming pyruvate, in the first stage of cellular respiration.
  53. Krebs Cycle
    Process that produces energy-rich compounds (NADH and FADH2) that deliver elentrons to electron transport systems in mitochondria.  The cycle also produces a small amount of ATP.
  54. Phosphorylation
    The transfer of a phosphate group to a molecule.