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- Combines biology and psychology.
- Study brain organization or the chemicals within the bain (neurotransmitters).
- Links between illnesses such as schizoprenia and Parkinson's disease.
Interested in how humans process, store, and retrieve information; solve problems; use reasoning and logic;make decisions; and use language.
- Research from the prenatal develpment period throughout the life span to research on the elderly.
- Research on the physical, social, and cognitive development of humans.
Study how people view and affect one another.
Designed to assess wheher a therapy is effective in helping individuals.
Knowledge via superstition
Knowledge that is bsed on subjective feelings, interpreting random events as nonrandom events, or believing in magical events.
Knowledge via intuition
Knowledge gained without being consciously aware of its source.
Knowledge via authority
Knowledge gained from those viewed as uthority figures.
Knowledge by tenacity
Knowledge gained from repeated ideas that are stubbornly clung to despite evidence to the contrary.
Knowledge via rationalism
Knowledge gained through logical reasoning.
Knowledge via empiricism
Knowledge gained through objective observations of organisms and events in the real world.
Knowledge via science
Knowledge gained through a combination of empirical methods and logical reasoning.
A prediction regarding the outcome of a study involving the potential relationship between at least two variables.
An event or behavior that has at least two values.
An organized system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain certain phenomena and how they are related.
A person who questions the validity, authenticity, or truth of something purpoting to be factual.
Making observations in a systematic manner to test hypotheses and refute or develop a theory.
Publicly verifiable knowledge
Presenting resarch to the public so that it can be observed, replicted, criticized, and tested.
Empirically solvable problems
Questions that are potentially answerable by means of currently available resarch techniques.
Principle of falsifiability
The idea that a scientifi theory must be stated in such a way that it is possible to refute or disconfirm it.
Claims that appear to be scientific but that actually violate the criteria of science.
The study of psychological issues to seek knowledge for its own sake.
The study of psychological issues that have practical significance and potential solutions.
Goals of Science
- Describe behavior.
- Predict behavior.
- Explain behavior.
Carefully observing behavior in order to describe it.
Identifying the factors that indicate when an event or events will occur.
Identifying the causes that determine when and why a behavior occurs.
Type of Research methods in Science
- Descriptive Methods.
- Predictive (Relational) Methods.
- Explanatory Methods.
- Observational Method.
- Survey Method.
- Case study Method.
- Making observations of human or animal behavior.
- Naturalistic observation: observing the behavior of humans or animals in their natural habitat.
- Laboratory observation: observing the behavior of humans or animals in a more contrived and controlled situation, usually the laboratory.
Case Study Method
An in-depth study of one or more individuals.
Questioning individuals on a topic or topics and then describing their responses.
Group of people who participate in a study.
All of the people about whom a study is meant to generalize.
A sample achieved through random selection in which each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen.
Predictive (Relational) Methods
- Correlational Method
- Quasi-Experimental Method
- Method that assesses the degree of relationship between two variables.
- Correlation does not imply causation.
A relationship between two variables in which an increase in one variable is accompanied by an increase in the other variable.
A relationship between two variables in which an increase in onve variable is accompanied by a decrease in other variable.
Research that compares naturally occurring groups of individuals; the variable of interest cannot be manipulated.
Subject (participant) Variable
A characteristic inherent in the subjects that cannot be changed.
The idea that it is possible that some other, uncontrolled, extraneous variable may be responsible for the observed relationship.
A research method that allows a researcher to establish a cause-and-effect relationship through manipulation of a variable and control of the situation.
The variable in a study that is manipulated by the researcher.
The variable in a study that is measured by the researcher.
The group of participants that does not receive any level of the independent variable and serves as the baseline in a study.
The group of participants that receives some level of the independent variable.
Assigning subjects to conditions in such a way that every participant has an equal probability of being placed in any condition.
Manipulating the independent variable in an experiment and controlling any other extraneous variables that could affect the results of a study.
To gain knowledge without being consciously aware of where the knowledge was gained exemplifies gaining knowledge via _____.
To gain knowledge from repeated ideas and to cling stubbornly to them despite evidence to the contrary exemplifies gaining knowledge via ____.
A ____ is a prediction regarding the outcome of a study that often involves a prediction regarding the relationship between two variables in a study.
A person who questions the validity, authenticity, or thruth of something purporting to be factual is a ___.
______ are questions that are potentially answerable by means of currently available research techniques.
Empirically solvable problems.
____ involves making claims that appear to be scientific but that actually violate the criteria of science.
The three goals of science are:
_____ research involves the study of psychological issues that have practical significance and potential solutions.
A ____ is an in-depth study of one or more individuals.
All of the people about whom a study is meant to generalize are the ____.
The ___ method is a method in which the degree of relationship between at least two variables is assessed.
A characteristic inherent in the subjects that cannot be changed is known as a ___ variable.
The variable in a study that is manipulated is the ____ variable.
The ___ group is the group of subjects that serves as the baseline in a study. They do not receive any level of the independent variable.
A belief that is based on subjective feelings is to gaining knowledge via ___ and stubbornly clinging to knowledge gained from repeated ideas is to gaining knowledge via ___.
Tom did really well on his psychology exam last week, and he believes that it is because he used his lucky pen. He has now decided hat he must use this pen for every examhat he writes because he believes that it will make him luck. This belief is based on:
A prediction regarding the outcome of a study is a (an) ____ and an organized system of assumptions and principles that attempts to explain certain phenomena and how they are related is a (an) ___.
____ involves making claims that appear to be scientific but that actually violate the criteria of science.
The study of psychological issues to seek knowledge for its own sake is to ___ and the study of psychological issues that have practical significance and potential solutions is to ___.
Ray was interested in the mating behavior of squirrels so he went into the field to observe them. Ray is using the ___ method of research.
Negative correlation is to ___ and positive correlation is to ____.
moving in opposite directions; increasing or decreasing together.
Which of the following is a participant (subject) variable?
If a researcher assigns subjects to groups based on, for example, their earned GPA, the researcher would be employing:
a participant variable.
In an experimental study of the effects of time spent studying on grades, time spent studying would be the:
Baseline is to treatment as ___ is to ___.
control group; experimental group.
In a study of the effects of alcohol on driving performance, driving performance would be the:
Each paper is published in these jorunals is first submitted to the editor of the journal, who sends the paper out for review by other scientists in that area.
Reference resource pubished by the APA that contains abstracts, or brief summaries, of articles in psychology and related disciplines.
PsycINFO and PsycLIT
- PsycINFO: online version of Psych Abstracts, updated monthly.
- PsycLIT: CD-ROM version of Psych Abstracts. No longer published. Updated quarterly during its publication period.
SSCI and SCI
- Social Science Citation Index:A resource that allows you to search for subsequent articles from the social and behavioral sciences that have cited a key article.
- Science Citation Index:A resource that allows you to search for subsequent articles from disciplines such as biology, chemistry, or medicine that have cited a key article.
ILL (Interlibrary loan)
A service provided by most libraries that allows you to borrow resources from other libraries if your library does not hold them.
A reference that contains abstracts or brief summaries of articles in sociology and related disciplines.
An online database that contains full-text articles from many psychology journals.
An online database that searches both scholarly journals and popular media sources, often including full-text articles.
A clearinghouse for research on educational psychology, testing, counseling, child development, evaluation research, and related areas.
Abstracts of doctoral dissertations from hundreds of universities in the United States and Canada, published monthly.
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
A committee charged with evaluating research projects in which human subjects are used.
Informed Consent Form
A form given to individuals before they participate in a study to inform them of the general nature of the study and to obtain their consent to participate.
Principles of teh APA Code of Ethics
- beneficence and nonmaleficence.
- fidelity and responsibility.
- respect for people's rights and dignity.
- avoiding harm.
- privacy and confidentiality.
- maintaining confidentiality.
- discussing the limits of confidentiality.
- minimizing intrusions on privacy.
- use of confidential information for didactic or other purposes.
- research and publications.
- institutional approval.
- informed consent to research.
- informed consent for recording voices and images in research.
- client/patient, student, and subordinate research participants.
- dispensing with informed cosent for research.
- offering inducements for research participation.
- deception in research.
- humane care and use of animals in research.
- reporting research resuts.
- publication credit.
- duplicate publication of data.
- sharing research data for verification.
"At risk" vs "At minimal risk"
- At minimal risk: studies in which participants are asked to fill out paper-and-pencil tests.
- At risk: The benefits of the knowledge to be gained from the study outweigh the risk to participants. In which subjects are at risk for physical or emotional harm. Studies in which privacy is compromised.
Lying to the subjects concerning the true nature of a study because knowing the true nature of the study might affect their performance.
Providing information about the true purpose of a study as soon after the compleiton of data collection as possible.
Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals
- justification of the research.
- care and housing of animals.
- acquisition of animals.
- experimental procedures.
- field research.
_____ and ____ are electronic versions of the Psychological Absracts.
The ___ can help you to work from a given article to see what has been published on that topic since the article was published.
Social Science Citation Index (SSCI).
The form given to individuals before they participate in a study in order to inform them of the general nature of the study and to obtain their consent to participate is called a(n) ____.
Lying to the subjects concerning the true nature of the study because knowing the true nature of the study would affect how they might perform in the study involves using _____.
A(n) ___ is the committee charged with evaluating research projects in which human participants are used.
Institutional Review Board (IRB).
The Milgram obedience to authority study is to ___ and the Tuskegee syphilis study is to ____.
the use of deception; failure to obtain informed consent.
Explaining the purpose of a study to subjects after the completion of data collection.
An IRB reviews research proposals to ensure:
that ethical standards are met.
____ is to research involving no more risk than that encountered in daily life and ___ is to being placed under some emotional or physical risk.
Minimal risk; risk.