WHAP Chapter 3
Card Set Information
WHAP Chapter 3
World History AP
What enabled Sudanic people to organize small scale states?
What profoundly influenced social organization and agriculture in the Northern half of Africa
Long term climatic change which turned the cool and well watered Sahara dessert into a ho, dry, arid, and uninhabitable place.
What happened when the waters of the Nile receded?
They left behind a layer of rich, fertile muck and those alluvial deposits supported a remarkably productive agriculture
A stretch of rapids and waterfalls
To what country was the Nile more prosporous too, Egypt or Nubia?
The launguage of the Egyptian people
What happened as the African climate grew hotter?
The Sudanic people moved more down the Nile
What discouraged forign invaders from invading Egypt and Nubia?
The surrounding water of the Meddeterainian and Red Sea along with hostile deserts
What were the earliest Egptian and Nubian States?
Who was Menes
An ambitious minor official from Southern Egypt who rose to power and extended his authority North and into the Delta
What is significant about Memphis?
It served as the capital of Menes and soon became the cultural and political senter of Egypt
What was significant about early Egyptian pharohs?
They claimed to be gods living on earth in human form
What was the most enduring symbol of a pharoahs authority in the Old Kingdom
What is Khufu
The largest pyramid
What is significant about Kush
It was a powerful Kingdom, organized by Nubian leaders, that was a formidable and wealthy state that dominated the upper reaches of the Nile
Who were Hyksos?
Semetic peole who invaded Egypt and introduced them to horses and bronze metallorgy
How did pharaohs of the New Kingdom advertise their power and authority?
Through numerous temples, palaces, and monumental statues
How did Egyptian authority try to prevent new invasions similar to the one of the Hyksos?
By seizing control of regions that might pose as threats in the future
What was significant about Napta/
The new kingdom of Kush after the Egyptians left Nubia
What is significant about Thebes?
It was the prominent political center before the unifiction of Egypt and after the unification, Thebes ecame the administrative capital.
What is significant about Heliopolis?
It was the headquarters of the sun cult near memphis and a principal cultural center of Ancient Egypt. Also the sight of an enormous temple to the Sun God Re
What was significant about Tanis?
It was a bustling port and Egypts gateway to the Medditeranian
What was significant about Kerma?
It was the capital city of Kush and dominated river and overland routes between Egypt and North Sudanic regions of the south
How was Kerma destroyed?
By Egypts expansive army of the New Kingdom
What was significant about Napta?
It was the new political center of Nubia and less vunerable to attacks because of its distance
What was significant about Meroe?
It was the new capital of Kush that enjoyed great prosperity because of its participation in Nile tradenetworks
What encouraged the formation sof heirchies and social classes?
What did peasent and slaves provided Egypt/Nubia
Hard labor that made complex agrocultural society possibe
Who did Egyptians recognize as rulers?
Who did Mesopotamians recognize as rulers?
How were high posistions in Egypt different from those in Mesopotamia?
Individuals of common birth could attain high posistion in Egypt more than they could in Mesopotamia
Why was Quen Hatshpsut significant?
She was one of the only Egyptian pharaohs
What encouraged the development of trade networks along the Nile?
Specialized labor and the invention of efficient transportation
Why was bronze metallurgy less prominent in Nubia?
The people of Nubia did not posses enough copper of tin to participate in bronze metallurgy. However they did have enough iron
What was the largest site of large scale iron production?
Why did Egypt rely heavily of trade?
Because of their lack of natural resources
What were Egyptians most pried exports?
Fine linen textiles and highly decorated ornamental objects
What is significant about Punt?
Is was a East African land where the Egyptians of the New Kingdom imported gold, ebony, ivory, cattle, aromatics, and slaves
What were the earliest Egyptian writings?
What is significant about heiroglyphs?>
They were symbols that represented souds and ideas; they were used for formal writings and monumental inscriptions
What was Hieratic scripts?
Simplified cursive form of heiroglyphs used for everyday affairs
Why was "The Sative of the Trades" significant?
It describes the privilleged life of scribes
What was the early writing in Nubia?
Who were the principal gods in Egypt?
Re and Amon
Who was Re?
The original Theban diety associated with sun, creation, fertility, and reproductive forces
Who was Re?
The Sun god worshipped in Heliopolis
Who was Aten?
A diety associated with the sun; the followers of Aten included Akhenaten and his people
Why was Ahenanten and his belief in Aten significant?
Ahenaten's faith in Aten represented the worlds earliest expression of monotheism
How was the belief of eternal life different in the New Kingdom compared to the Old Kingdom?
In the new kingdom, Egyptians came to think of enternal life as a condition avaliableto memebers of the ruling class AND normal mortals
Who was Apedemak?
A prominent Nubien diety who was the lion god and served as the war god for the Kingdom Kush
Who was Sebiumeker?
The creator god and devine gaurdian of human devotees (Nubian God)
Why was Oisis significant?
He was an Egyptian diety associated with immortality and was honored though a religious cult that demanded observance of high moral standards
Where did Bantu people settle?
Along the banks of rivers and open areas of the regions forest
Wht did Bantu people cultivate?
Yam, oil palms, millet, and sorgnum
Describe Bantu living quarters?
Clan based villages headed by chiefs who conducted religious rituals and represented them
Who did Bantu people originally trade with?
Huntere and gatherers who inhabited the tropical forest (originally called pygmies but latered called forest people)
What was the most likely cause of the Bantu migrations?
What was the significance of the canoes used by the Bantu people?
They allowed the Bantu's to travel rapidly and establish new settlement along riverbanks
What anabled the Bantu population to increase more rapidly
What was thre most important effects of the Bantu migrations?
The establishment of agricultural societies
Sudanic, Bantu, and Niger-Congo people held what type of beliefs?
Who was Nyamba?
A god recognized by Niger-Congo people who created the world and established principals that would govern its development