Card Set Information
What is cancer?
imprecise term used to describe an estimated 200 different kinds of malignant neoplasms marked by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
What is a new growth of no function?
What is the name of a neoplasia?
What means it will spread; it is a threat to the pt?
What means it is non-cancerous; not a threat; wont spread?
What is a metastasis?
spreading of cancer
What is a malignant tumor that starts in epithelial tissue (skin, lining of organs)?
What is a sarcoma?
cancer arising from connective tissue (muscle, bone, cartilage, fat)
What is a cancer of blood forming tissues, mostly commonly WBCs?
What is a lymphoma?
malignancy of lymph tissue (bone marrow)
What is tumor morphology?
another way to classify cancers according to shape and size
What type of cancer outnumbers other cancers 6:1?
What are common types of cancer in males? (in order)
What types of cancers cause the greatest number of deaths in men? (in order)
What are common types of cancer in women? (in order)
What types of cancers cause the greatest number of deaths in women? (in order)
What are 5 factors affecting the significance of cancer?
site of development (internal causes are worse)
ease of detection (found early, take care of it earlier)
extent of tumor at diagnosis (small?contained? spreading?)
effectiveness of therapy (chemo, radiation, surgery -> get it all?)
biologic behavior (type-> some spread worse than others)
What are the 3 mechanisms of tumor spread?
What are 6 etiologies of cancer?
What is an initiator?
what starts/causes the cancer
What is a promoter?
what promotes the growth of the cancer
What are some local manifestations of cancer?
pain (typically #1)
What are 7 systemic manifestations of cancer?
2. weight loss
4. hormonal syndromes
5. cachexia (general wasting-> skinny, atrophied mm)
6. night sweats
What are 4 causes of death in cancer pts?
1. general wasting
2. infection (#1 cause)- pneumonia
3. metabolic derangement - messed up/of balanced
What are cancers 7 warning signals?
1.Change in bowel or bladder habits
2.A sore that does not heal
3.Unusual bleeding or discharge
4.Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
5.Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
6.Obvious change in wart or mole
7.Nagging cough or hoarseness
Where do bone tumors usually occur?
distal femur or proximal tibia
What are 2 types of benign bone neoplasms?
What is a bone cyst?
benign, fluid filled
makes more common
upper humerus or femur
What is an osteoid osteoma?
small painful lesion
5-24 yrs old
males > females
LEs, small bones of foot (sometimes vertebrae, femur)
What are 4 types of malignant bone neoplasms?
giant cell tumor
What is an osteosarcoma?
often requires amputation
between ages 10-20
What is a chondrosarcoma?
2nd most common malignant bone tumor
average 45 yrs
pelvic bones, long bones
What is a giant cell tumor?
men and women equal
What is ewings sarcoma?
4-5% of all bone tumors
typicall long bones
malignant tumor of bone
most commonly due to metastatic cancer
tumor cells arrive in bloodstream
skeletal metastases are found in at least 85% of all cancer cases
vertebral column is most common
What are some preventions of cancer?
dont drink or smoke
dont get in sun
dont take extra estrogen
get all your tests