cancer

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Author:
jpowell22
ID:
169897
Filename:
cancer
Updated:
2012-09-11 20:37:46
Tags:
patho
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Description:
cancer lecture
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  1. What is cancer?
    imprecise term used to describe an estimated 200 different kinds of malignant neoplasms marked by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
  2. What is a new growth of no function?
    neoplasia
  3. What is the name of a neoplasia?
    tumor
  4. What means it will spread; it is a threat to the pt?
    malignant
  5. What means it is non-cancerous; not a threat; wont spread?
    benign
  6. What is a metastasis?
    spreading of cancer
  7. What is a malignant tumor that starts in epithelial tissue (skin, lining of organs)?
    carcinoma
  8. What is a sarcoma?
    cancer arising from connective tissue (muscle, bone, cartilage, fat)
  9. What is a cancer of blood forming tissues, mostly commonly WBCs?
    leukemia
  10. What is a lymphoma?
    malignancy of lymph tissue (bone marrow)
  11. What is tumor morphology?
    another way to classify cancers according to shape and size
  12. What type of cancer outnumbers other cancers 6:1?
    carcinomas
  13. What are common types of cancer in males? (in order)
    • 1. prostate
    • 2. lung
    • 3. colorectal
  14. What types of cancers cause the greatest number of deaths in men? (in order)
    • 1. lung
    • 2. prostate
    • 3. colorectal
  15. What are common types of cancer in women? (in order)
    • 1. breast
    • 2. lung
    • 3. colorectal
  16. What types of cancers cause the greatest number of deaths in women? (in order)
    • 1. lung
    • 2. breast
    • 3. colorectal
  17. What are 5 factors affecting the significance of cancer?
    • site of development (internal causes are worse)
    • ease of detection (found early, take care of it earlier)
    • extent of tumor at diagnosis (small?contained? spreading?)
    • effectiveness of therapy (chemo, radiation, surgery -> get it all?)
    • biologic behavior (type-> some spread worse than others)
  18. What are the 3 mechanisms of tumor spread?
    • lymphatics
    • blood vessels
    • body cavities
  19. What are 6 etiologies of cancer?
    • chemicals
    • radiation
    • oncogenic viruses
    • unknowns
    • genetics
    • hormones
  20. What is an initiator?
    what starts/causes the cancer
  21. What is a promoter?
    what promotes the growth of the cancer
  22. What are some local manifestations of cancer?
    • pain (typically #1)
    • obstruction
    • mass
    • fracture
    • hemorrhage
    • infection
  23. What are 7 systemic manifestations of cancer?
    • 1. anemia
    • 2. weight loss
    • 3. fatigue
    • 4. hormonal syndromes
    • 5. cachexia (general wasting-> skinny, atrophied mm)
    • 6. night sweats
    • 7. infection
  24. What are 4 causes of death in cancer pts?
    • 1. general wasting
    • 2. infection (#1 cause)- pneumonia
    • 3. metabolic derangement - messed up/of balanced
    • 4. hemorrhage
  25. What are cancers 7 warning signals?
    • 1.Change in bowel or bladder habits
    • 2.A sore that does not heal
    • 3.Unusual bleeding or discharge
    • 4.Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
    • 5.Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
    • 6.Obvious change in wart or mole
    • 7.Nagging cough or hoarseness
  26. Where do bone tumors usually occur?
    distal femur or proximal tibia
  27. What are 2 types of benign bone neoplasms?
    • bone cyst
    • osteoid osteoma
  28. What is a bone cyst?
    • benign, fluid filled
    • makes more common
    • upper humerus or femur
    • surgical excision
  29. What is an osteoid osteoma?
    • small painful lesion
    • 5-24 yrs old
    • males > females
    • LEs, small bones of foot (sometimes vertebrae, femur)
    • surgical excision
  30. What are 4 types of malignant bone neoplasms?
    • osteosarcoma
    • chondrosarcoma
    • giant cell tumor
    • ewings sarcoma
  31. What is an osteosarcoma?
    • highly malignant
    • often requires amputation
    • poor prognosis
    • between ages 10-20
    • males>females
    • usually femur
  32. What is a chondrosarcoma?
    • 2nd most common malignant bone tumor
    • men>women
    • average 45 yrs
    • pelvic bones, long bones
    • amputation
    • poor prognosis
  33. What is a giant cell tumor?
    • aggressive
    • 30-40 yrs
    • men and women equal
    • amputation
  34. What is ewings sarcoma?
    • 4-5% of all bone tumors
    • younger ppl
    • typicall long bones
    • malignant tumor of bone
    • most commonly due to metastatic cancer
    • tumor cells arrive in bloodstream
    • skeletal metastases are found in at least 85% of all cancer cases
    • vertebral column is most common
  35. What are some preventions of cancer?
    • dont drink or smoke
    • dont get in sun
    • dont take extra estrogen
    • avoid radiation
    • occupational hazards
    • eat nutritiously
    • get all your tests

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