306 Neoplasia

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KristaDavis
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169900
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306 Neoplasia
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2012-09-09 19:10:52
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306 Neoplasia
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Exam 1
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  1. Resulting process of cancer (disorder of altered cell differentiation and growth)...meaning "New Growth"
    Neoplasia
  2. New growth of cells resulting during Neoplasia that lack the control over cell growth and division
    Neoplasm
  3. Normal cell renewal and repair involves ____ and ____:
    Proliferation & Differentiation
  4. Process of cell division that is an inherent adaptive mechanism for cell replacement when old cells die or additional cells are needed:
    Proliferation 
  5. Process of specialization whereby new cells acquire the structural, microscopic, and functional characteristics of the cells they replace
    Differentiation
  6. What cells are permanent and cannot undergo proliferation?
    Cardiac Cells and Neurons
  7. Referring to the epithelial cells of GI, hematopoietic cells that undergo proliferation
    Labile 
  8. Referring to the liver cells (undergoing proliferation)
    Stable
  9. Cells that go through proliferation regularly:
    Erythrocytes (RBC's) & Hepatocytes
  10. Complosed of well-differentiated cells that resemble the normal counter-part both in terms of structure and function but have lost the ability to control cell proliferation:
    Benign Neoplasms
  11. Less-differentiated  cells that have lost the ability to control both cell proliferation and differentiation.
    Malignant Neoplasm
  12. The BETTER the differentiation of a neoplasm, the ____ its rate of growth and the more completely it retains the functional capability found in its normal counterparts
    Slower
  13. Sufficiently differentiated cells so that their daughter cells are limited to the same cell line, but they have not reacehd the point of differentiation that precludes the potential for active proliferation
    (Parent Cell)
    Progenitor Cell
  14. Cell Cycle:
    • G1 = Gap 1, the postmitotic phase during which DNA synthesis ceases while RNA and protein synthesis and cell growth take place
    • S = DNA synthesis occurs, giving rise to two separate sets of chromosomes (one for each daughter cell)
    • G2 = premitotic phase and is similar to G1 in that DNA ceases while RNA and protein synthesis continues.
    • M = phase of nuclear division, or mitosis, and cytokinesis

    **G1, G2, and S phase are considered interphase
  15. Molecular Basis for Cancer:
    • *Oncogenesis
    • *Proto-oncogenes- regulates cell growth
    • *Tumor suppressors- stop division of mutated cells
    • *Apoptosis- controlled cell death
  16. Gene that is capable of causing the initial and continuing conversion of normal cells into cancer cells
    Oncogene
  17. Allowing unrestricted cell growth
    Oncogenesis
  18. Transformation from Normal Cells ---> Cancer Cells:
    • Initiation = Exposure to Carcinogen
    • Promotion = Mutated cells are stimulated to divide
  19. Cancers are normally referred to as ______
    Neoplasms or Tumors
  20. Non-cancerous
    Benign
  21. Cancerous
    Malignant
  22. Added to the end of the parenchymal tissue type from which a benign tumor originated:
    -oma
  23. Bone  Tumor
    Osteoma
  24. Characteristics of Normal Cells
    • Undergo differentiation
    • Well differentiated
    • Tissue antigens present on the cell surface
    • Contact inhibition (limited # of times to replicate)
    • Reverts to normal when stimulus is removed
  25. Characteristics of Malignant Cells:
    • *Anaplasia
    • *Cancer cells vary in size and shape
    • *Not functional
    • *Loss of adhesion
    • *Loss of contact inhibition
    • *Abnormal surface antigens
  26. Substance that induces the formation of antibodies because it is recognized by the immune system as a threat
    Antigen
  27. Characteristics of Benign Neoplasms:
    *Well differentiated

    *Adhesion

    *Encapsulated

    *No metastasis

    *Slow growing

    *(Usually) non-fatal

    *May have abnormal hormone levels
  28. Lipoma (fatty tumor) is an example of :
    Benign Tumor
  29. Characteristics of a Malignant Neoplasm:
    • *Poorly differentiated cells
    • *Chromosomal abnormalities
    • *No demarcation
    • *Uncontrolled growth
    • *No normal apoptosis
    • *Lethal
    • *Metastasizes
  30. Ovarian Cancer (cancer cells travel from the ovaries to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body) is an example of:
    Malignant Neoplasm
  31. Tumor Invasion
    -Enzymatic activity, Seeding, Metastasis

    -Seeds carried by lymph and blood

    -Requires nutrients and growth factors

    -Adherence to other cells

    -Angiogenesis for nutrients

    -Secondary site

    -Growth
  32. What factor increases someone's risk for cancer more than any other factor?
    • Heredity
    • BRCA-1, BRCA-2
  33. Hereditary cancer commonly seen in children affecting the eye
    Retinoblastoma
  34. Things that increase cancer risks:
    • Hormones -- may stimulate malignancy 
    • Chemicals -- carcinogens
    • Radiation
  35. Cancers from Viruses:
    • Viruses-
    • Ex. HPV, EBV, HBV, HTLV-1
  36. Immune System Role
    • *Tumors have abnormal antigens
    • *Immunologic Surveillance
    • *Those with immunosuppression are at risk
  37. Childhood Cancers:
    • Retinoblastoma
    • Wilm's tumor
  38. Risks as Adults with Cancer:
    • *Survival
    • *Functioning ability
    • *Risks of chemotherapeutic drugs
    • *Risks of second cancers
  39. Warning signs of Cancer:
  40. Cancer Manifestations:
    • *Altered organ function
    • *Cachexia
  41. Paraneoplastic Syndromes:
    • *Seen often with breast and blood cancers
    • *Endocrine effects
    • *Coagulation defects

    *Ex. small cell cancer
  42. Ways to Diagnose Cancer
    • -Pap smear- cytology
    • -Tissue biopsy
  43. Tumor Grading:

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