DSM Glossary of Technical Terms

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DSM Glossary of Technical Terms
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2012-09-11 21:09:28
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DSM Glossary of Technical Terms
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  1. A pattern of observable behaviors that is the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of _____ are sadness, elation, and anger. In contrast to mood, which refers to a more pervasive and sustained emotional "climate," ____ refers to more fluctuating changes in emotional "weather." What is considered the normal range of the expression of _____ varies considerably, both within and among different cultures.
    affect
  2. Significant reduction in the intensity of emotional expression.
    blunted
  3. Absence or near absence of any signs of affective expression.
    flat
  4. Discordance between affective expression and the content of speech or ideation.
    inappropriate
  5. Abnormal variability in affect with repeated, rapid, and abrupt shifts in affective expression.
    labile
  6. Mild reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression.
    restricted or constricted
  7. Excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension. The activity is usually nonproductive and repetitious and consists of such behavior as pacing, fidgeting, wringing of the hands, pulling of clothes, and inability to sit still.
    agitation (psychomotor agitation)
  8. A chemical entity extrinsic to endogenously produced substances that acts on a receptor and is capable of producing the maximal effect that can be produced by stimulating that receptor. A partial agonist is capable only of producing less than the maximal effect even when given in a concentration sufficient to bind with all available receptors.
    agonist medication
  9. A chemical entity extrinsic to endogenously produced substances that acts on a family of receptors (such as mu, delta, and kappa opiate receptors) in such a fashion that it is an agonist or partial agonist on one type of receptor and an antagonist on another.
    agonist/antagonist medication
  10. An impoverishment in thinking that is inferred from observing speech and language behavior. There may be brief and concrete replies to questions and restriction in the amount of spontaneous speech (poverty of speech). Sometimes the speech is adequate in amount but conveys little information because it is overconcrete, overabstract, repetitive, or stereotyped (poverty of content).
    alogia
  11. Loss of memory.
    amnesia
  12. Loss of memory of events that occur after the onset of the etiological condition or agent.
    anterograde
  13. Loss of memory of events that occurred before the onset of the etiological condition or agent.
    retrograde
  14. A chemical entity extrinsic to endogenously produced substances that occupies a receptor, produces no physiologic effects, and prevents endogenous and exogenous chemicals from producing an effect on that receptor.
    antagonist medication
  15. The apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune accompanied by a feeling of dysphoria or somatic symptoms of tension. The focus of anticipated danger may be internal or external.
    anxiety
  16. An impairment in the understanding or transmission of ideas by language in any of its forms—reading, writing, or speaking—that is due to injury or disease of the brain centers involved in language.
    aphasia
  17. An inability to produce speech sounds that require the use of the larynx that is not due to a lesion in the central nervous system.
    aphonia
  18. Partial or complete loss of coordination of voluntary muscular movement.
    ataxia
  19. The ability to focus in a sustained manner on a particular stimulus or activity. A disturbance in _____ may be manifested by easy distractibility or difficulty in finishing tasks or in concentrating on work.
    attention
  20. An inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed activities. When severe enough to be considered pathological, _______ is pervasive and prevents the person from completing many different types of activities (e.g., work, intellectual pursuits, self-care).
    avolition
  21. Waxy flexibility—rigid maintenance of a body position over an extended period of time.
    catalepsy
  22. Episodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone resulting in the individual collapsing, often in association with intense emotions such as laughter, anger, fear, or surprise.
    cataplexy
  23. Marked motor abnormalities including motoric immobility (i.e., catalepsy or stupor), certain types ofexcessive motor activity (apparently purposeless agitation not influenced by external stimuli),extreme negativism (apparent motiveless resistance to instructions or attempts to be moved) ormutism, posturing or stereotyped movements, and echolalia or echopra.
    catatonic behavior
  24. A loss of, or alteration in, voluntary motor or sensory functioning suggesting a neurological or general medical condition. Psychological factors are judged to be associated with the development of the symptom, and the symptom is not fully explained by a neurological or general medical condition or the direct effects of a substance. The symptom is not intentionally produced or feigned and is not culturally sanctioned.
    conversion symptom
  25. Automatic psychological process that protects the individual against anxiety and from awareness of internal or external stressors or dangers.
    ________ _________ mediate the individual's reaction to emotional conflicts and to external stressors. Some (e.g., projection, splitting, and acting out) are almost invariably maladaptive. Others, such as suppression and denial, may be either maladaptive or adaptive, depending on their severity, their inflexibility, and the context in which they occur. Definitions of specific _______ _______ and how they would be recorded using the Defensive Functioning Scale are presented in Defensive Functioning Scale.
    defense mechanism
  26. A false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly sustained despite what almost everyone else believes and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary.

    The belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture (e.g., it is not an article of religious faith). When a false belief involves a value judgment, it is regarded as a ______ only when the judgment is so extreme as to defy credibility. ______al conviction occurs on a continuum and can sometimes be inferred from an individual's behavior. It is often difficult to distinguish between a ______ and an overvalued idea (in which case the individual has an unreasonable belief or idea but does not hold it as firmly as is the case with a ______). ________ are subdivided according to their content
    delusion
  27. A delusion that involves a phenomenon that the person's culture would regard as totally implausible.
    bizarre
  28. The delusion that one's sexual partner is unfaithful.
    delusional jealousy
  29. A delusion that another person, usually of higher status, is in love with the individual.
    erotomanic
  30. A delusion of inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person.
    grandiose
  31. A delusion in which feelings, impulses, thoughts, or actions are experienced as being under the control of some external force rather than being under one's own control.
    of being controlled
  32. A delusion whose theme is that events, objects, or other persons in one's immediate environment have a particular and unusual significance. These delusions are usually of a negative or pejorative nature, but also may be grandiose in content. This differs from an idea of reference, in which the false belief is not as firmly held nor as fully organized into a true belief.
    of reference
  33. A delusion in which the central theme is that one (or someone to whom one is close) is being attacked, harassed, cheated, persecuted, or conspired against.
    persecutory
  34. A delusion whose main content pertains to the appearance or functioning of one's body.
    somatic
  35. The delusion that one's thoughts are being broadcast out loud so that they can be perceived by others.
    thought broadcasting
  36. The delusion that certain of one's thoughts are not one's own, but rather are inserted into one's mind.
    thought insertion
  37. An alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, one's mental processes or body (e.g., feeling like one is in a dream).
    depersonalization
  38. ("loosening of associations") A pattern of speech in which a person's ideas slip off one track onto another that is completely unrelated or only obliquely related. In moving from one sentence or clause to another, the person shifts the topic idiosyncratically from one frame of reference to another and things may be said in juxtaposition that lack a meaningful relationship. This disturbance occurs between clauses, in contrast to incoherence, in which the disturbance is within clauses.
    An occasional change of topic without warning or obvious connection does not constitute derailment.
    derailment
  39. An alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems strange or unreal (e.g., people may seem unfamiliar or mechanical).
    derealization
  40. Confusion about the time of day, date, or season (time), where one is (place), or who one is (person).
    disorientation
  41. A disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment. The disturbance may be sudden or gradual, transient or chronic.
    dissociation
  42. The inability to maintain attention, that is, the shifting from one area or topic to another with minimal provocation, or attention being drawn too frequently to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli.
    distractibility
  43. Imperfect articulation of speech due to disturbances of muscular control.
    dysarthria
  44. Distortion of voluntary movements with involuntary muscular activity.
    dyskinesia
  45. Primary disorders of sleep or wakefulness characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia as the major presenting symptom. ________ are disorders of the amount, quality, or timing of sleep.
    dyssomnia
  46. Disordered tonicity of muscles.
    dystonia
  47. The pathological, parrotlike, and apparently senseless repetition (echoing) of a word or phrase just spoken by another person.
    echolalia
  48. Repetition by imitation of the movements of another. The action is not a willed or voluntary one and has a semiautomatic and uncontrollable quality.
    echopraxia
  49. A recurrence of a memory, feeling, or perceptual experience from the past.
    flashback
  50. A nearly continuous flow of accelerated speech with abrupt changes from topic to topic that are usually based on understandable associations, distracting stimuli, or plays on words. When severe, speech may be disorganized and incoherent.
    flight of ideas
  51. A persistent aversion toward some or all of those physical characteristics or social roles that connote one's own biological sex.
    gender dysphoria
  52. A person's inner conviction of being male or female.
    gender identity
  53. Attitudes, patterns of behavior, and personality attributes defined by the culture in which the person lives as stereotypically "masculine" or "feminine" social roles.
    gender role
  54. An inflated appraisal of one's worth, power, knowledge, importance, or identity. When extreme, _________ may be of delusional proportions.
    grandiosity
  55. A sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of a true perception but that occurs without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ.
    ________ should be distinguished from illusions, in which an actual external stimulus is misperceived or misinterpreted. The person may or may not have insight into the fact that he or she is having a _________.

    One person with auditory ________ may recognize that he or she is having a false sensory experience, whereas another may be convinced that the source of the sensory experience has an independent physical reality.

    The term is not ordinarily applied to the false perceptions that occur during dreaming, while falling asleep (hypnagogic), or when awakening (hypnopompic). 
    hallucination
  56. A hallucination involving the perception of sound, most commonly of voices. Some clinicians and investigators would not include those experiences perceived as coming from inside the head and would instead limit the concept of true ________ hallucinations to those sounds whose source is perceived as being external. However, as used in DSM-IV, no distinction is made as to whether the source of the voices is perceived as being inside or outside of the head.
    auditory
  57. A hallucination involving the perception of taste (usually unpleasant).
    gustatory
  58. A hallucination involving the perception of odor, such as of burning rubber or decaying fish.
    olfactory
  59. A hallucination involving the perception of a physical experience localized within the body (such as a feeling of electricity). A ______ hallucination is to be distinguished from physical sensations arising from an as-yet undiagnosed general medical condition, from hypochondriacal preoccupation with normal physical sensations, and from a tactile hallucination.
    somatic
  60. A hallucination involving the perception of being touched or of something being under one's skin. The most common ______ hallucinations are the sensation of electric shocks and formication (the sensation of something creeping or crawling on or under the skin).
    tactile
  61. A hallucination involving sight, which may consist of formed images, such as of people, or of unformed images, such as flashes of light. ______ hallucinations should be distinguished from illusions, which are misperceptions of real external stimuli.
    visual
  62. Painful sensitivity to sounds.
    hyperacusis
  63. Excessive sleepiness, as evidenced by prolonged nocturnal sleep, difficulty maintaining an alert awake state during the day, or undesired daytime sleep episodes.
    hypersomnia
  64. The feeling that casual incidents and external events have a particular and unusual meaning that is specific to the person. This is to be distinguished from a delusion of reference, in which there is a belief that is held with delusional conviction.
    ideas of reference
  65. A misperception or misinterpretation of a real external stimulus, such as hearing the rustling of leaves as the sound of voices. See also hallucination.
    illusion
  66. Speech or thinking that is essentially incomprehensible to others because words or phrases are joined together without a logical or meaningful connection. This disturbance occurs within clauses, in contrast to derailment, in which the disturbance is between clauses. This has sometimes been referred to as "word salad" to convey the degree of linguistic disorganization. Mildly ungrammatical constructions or idiomatic usages characteristic of particular regional or cultural backgrounds, lack of education, or low intelligence should not be considered ________. The term is generally not applied when there is evidence that the disturbance in speech is due to an aphasia.
    incoherence
  67. A subjective complaint of difficulty falling or staying asleep or poor sleep quality. 
    insomnia
  68. Difficulty in falling asleep.
    initial insomnia
  69. Awakening in the middle of the night followed by eventually falling back to sleep, but with difficulty.
    middle insomnia
  70. Awakening before one's usual waking time and being unable to return to sleep.
    terminal insomnia
  71. A condition in which an individual shows intermingling, in various degrees, of the characteristics of each sex, including physical form, reproductive organs, and sexual behavior.
    intersex condition
  72. The visual perception that objects are larger than they actually are.
    macropsia
  73. The erroneous belief that one's thoughts, words, or actions will cause or prevent a specific outcome in some way that defies commonly understood laws of cause and effect. _____ ______ may be a part of normal child development.
    magical thinking
  74. The visual perception that objects are smaller than they actually are.
    micropsia
  75. A pervasive and sustained emotion that colors the perception of the world. Common examples of ____ include depression, elation, anger, and anxiety. In contrast to affect, which refers to more fluctuating changes in emotional "weather," ____ refers to a more pervasive and sustained emotional "climate."
    mood
  76. An unpleasant mood, such as sadness, anxiety, or irritability.
    dysphoric
  77. An exaggerated feeling of well-being, or euphoria or elation. A person with ______ mood may describe feeling "high,""ecstatic,""on top of the world," or "up in the clouds."
    elevated
  78. Mood in the "normal" range, which implies the absence of depressed or elevated mood.
    euthymic
  79. Lack of restraint in expressing one's feelings, frequently with an overvaluation of one's significance or importance.
    expansive
  80. Easily annoyed and provoked to anger.
    irritable
  81. Delusions or hallucinations whose content is entirely consistent with the typical themes of a depressed or manic mood. If the mood is depressed, the content of the delusions or hallucinations would involve themes of personal inadequacy, guilt, disease, death, nihilism, or deserved punishment.
    The content of the delusion may include themes of persecution if these are based on self-derogatory concepts such as deserved punishment.
    If the mood is manic, the content of the delusions or hallucinations would involve themes of inflated worth, power, knowledge, or identity, or a special relationship to a deity or a famous person.
    The content of the delusion may include themes of persecution if these are based on concepts such as inflated worth or deserved punishment.
    mood-congruent psychotic features
  82. Delusions or hallucinations whose content is not consistent with the typical themes of a depressed or manic mood. In the case of depression, the delusions or hallucinations would not involve themes of personal inadequacy, guilt, disease, death, nihilism, or deserved punishment. In the case of mania, the delusions or hallucinations would not involve themes of inflated worth, power, knowledge, or identity, or a special relationship to a deity or a famous person.
    Examples  include persecutory delusions (without self-derogatory or grandiose content), thought insertion, thought broadcasting, and delusions of being controlled whose content has no apparent relationship to any of the themes listed above.
    mood-incongruent psychotic features
  83. Involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes that consist of small-amplitude rapid tremors in one direction and a larger, slower, recurrent sweep in the opposite direction. May be horizontal, vertical, or rotary.
    nystagmus
  84. An unreasonable and sustained belief that is maintained with less than delusional intensity (i.e., the person is able to acknowledge the possibility that the belief may not be true). The belief is not one that is ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture.
    overvalued idea
  85. Discrete periods of sudden onset of intense apprehension, fearfulness, or terror, often associated with feelings of impending doom. During these attacks there are symptoms such as shortness of breath or smothering sensations; palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; chest pain or discomfort; choking; and fear of going crazy or losing control.____ ______ may be unexpected(uncued), in which the onset of the attack is not associated with a situational trigger and instead occurs "out of the blue"; situationally bound, in which the _____ _____ almost invariably occurs immediately on exposure to, or in anticipation of, a situational trigger ("cue"); and situationally predisposed, in which the ______ _____ is more likely to occur on exposure to a situational trigger but is not invariably associated with it.
    panic attacks
  86. Ideation, of less than delusional proportions, involving suspiciousness or the belief that one is being harassed, persecuted, or unfairly treated.
    paranoid ideation
  87. Abnormal behavior or physiological events occurring during sleep or sleep-wake transitions.
    parasomnia
  88. Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself.

    These traits are prominent aspects of _______ that are exhibited in a wide range of important social and personal contexts. Only when _______ traits are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress do they constitute a ______ Disorder.
    personality
  89. A persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation (the phobic stimulus) that results in a compelling desire to avoid it. This often leads either to avoidance of the stimulus or to enduring it with dread.
    phobia
  90. Speech that is increased in amount, accelerated, and difficult or impossible to interrupt. Usually it is also loud and emphatic. Frequently the person talks without any social stimulation and may continue to talk even though no one is listening.
    pressured speech
  91. An early or premonitory sign or symptom of a disorder.
    prodrome
  92. Visible generalized slowing of movements and speech.
    psychomotor retardation
  93. This term has historically received a number of different definitions, none of which has achieved universal acceptance. The narrowest definition of ______ is restricted to delusions or prominent hallucinations, with the hallucinations occurring in the absence of insight into their pathological nature. A slightly less restrictive definition would also include prominent hallucinations that the individual realizes are hallucinatory experiences. Broader still is a definition that also includes other positive symptoms of Schizophrenia (i.e., disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior).

    Unlike these definitions based on symptoms, the definition used in DSM-II and ICD-9 was probably far too inclusive and focused on the severity of functional impairment, so that a mental disorder was termed _____ if it resulted in "impairment that grossly interferes with the capacity to meet ordinary demands of life." Finally, the term has been defined conceptually as a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing. Based on their characteristic features, the different disorders in DSM-IV emphasize different aspects of the various definitions of _______.
    psychotic
  94. The phase of an illness that occurs after remission of the florid symptoms or the full syndrome.
    residual phase
  95. A person's biological status as male, female, or uncertain. Depending on the circumstances, this determination may be based on the appearance of the external genitalia or on karyotyping.
    sex
  96. An objective manifestation of a pathological condition. ____s are observed by the examiner rather than reported by the affected individual.
    sign
  97. Repetitive, seemingly driven, and nonfunctional motor behavior (e.g., hand shaking or waving, body rocking, head banging, mouthing of objects, self-biting, picking at skin or body orifices, hitting one's own body).
    stereotyped movements
  98. Any life event or life change that may be associated temporally (and perhaps causally) with the onset, occurrence, or exacerbation of a mental disorder.
    stressor, psychosocial
  99. A state of unresponsiveness with immobility and mutism.
    stupor
  100. A subjective manifestation of a pathological condition. _____s are reported by the affected individual rather than observed by the examiner.
    symptom
  101. A grouping of signs and symptoms, based on their frequent co-occurrence, that may suggest a common underlying pathogenesis, course, familial pattern, or treatment selection.
    syndrome
  102. A condition in which a sensory experience associated with one modality occurs when another modality is stimulated, for example, a sound produces the sensation of a particular color.
    synesthesia
  103. An involuntary, sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization.
    tic
  104. Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex.
    transsexualism

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