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2012-09-11 11:17:31

Test 1
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  1. Chemistry
    the study of chemicals and the study of matter and its changes
  2. 5 steps of scientific method
    • 1. Observations
    • 2. Hypothesis
    • 3. Experimentation ◦ (repeat of steps 1-3 many times)
    • 4. Law
    • 5. Theory
  3. Qualitative vs quantitative
    Qualitative-observed (color,

    Quantitative-recorded (numerical data obtained through measurements)
  4. Mixtures
    A combination of 2 or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities
  5. Hetero mixture
    composition of mixtureis not the same throughout (it is not uniform
  6. Homo mixture
    composition of mixture is the same throughout
  7. Elements
    cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
  8. Compounds
    composed of units of elements chemically bound to each other in a fixed proportion
  9. Physical vs chemical properties
    • Physical properties = measured or observed without changing the composition or identity of the substance
    • ie. Color, Melting point, Boiling point

    • Chemical properties = require a chemical change of the substance to observe these properties
    • ie. Acid/base, Combustion, precipitation
  10. Extensive and intensive properties
    • Extensive property = dependent on howmuch matter is being studied. Property depends on the extent of the matter andcan be added together
    • ie.  Mass, Volume

    Intensive property = does NOT depend on the quantity of matter being studied. Values cannot be added together ie. Temperature, Density
  11. Solid, Liquid, Gas
    • Solid-molecules not moving; in a fixed position
    • Liquid-molecules "roll over each other""
    • Gas-no attraction to other molecules
  12. Endothermic Phase Change
    All require energy input:

    • Solid to liquid◦ Called melting ◦ Temperature of change is called melting point
    • Liquid to gas ◦ Called boiling, evaporation or vaporization ◦ Temperature of change is called boiling point ◦ 
    • Solid to gas ◦ Called sublimation
  13. Exothermic Phase change
    All require energy release

    • Gas to liquid◦ Called condensation ◦ Temperature of change is called boiling point 
    • Liquid to solid ◦ Called freezing ◦ Temperature of change is called freezing point (which isthe same temperature as the melting point)
    • Gas to solid ◦ Called deposition
  14. Temperature comparisons

    oR Rankine
    oF Farhenheit
    oC Celsius
     K Kelvin
    oR and oF have same degree size, but different zero points

    oC and K have same degree size, but different zero points
  15. Dalton's Atomic Theory
    • 1. each element is composed of atoms
    • 2. atoms of a given element are identical, atomsof different elements are different in somefundamental way
    • 3. chemical compounds are formed when atomscombine with each other; a compound always hasthe same relative number and types of atoms
    • 4. chemical reactions involve reorganization ofatoms, not a change in the identity of the atomsthemselves
  16. Democritus and Leucippus
    • Atomic scissors
    • Indivisible particles that retained properties of thatelement called atoms
  17. Antoine Lavoisier

    Law of Conservation of Mass
    mass is neither created nor destroyed by a chemical reaction
  18. Joseph Louis Proust

    Law of Definite Proportions (or Law of Constant Composition)
    Given compound contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass
  19. Modern atomic theory
    • J.J. Thomson – electron as first discoveredsubatomic particle
    • Robert Millikan – electron charge magnitudeand mass
    • Earnest Rutherford – proton existence verifiedas second subatomic particle
    • James Chadwick – neutron as third subatomicparticle
    • Rutherford – protons and neutrons located innucleus and electrons in electron cloud
  20. Atomic mass
    weighted average atomic mass of all isotopes for that element
  21. Special groups on PT
    • Group 1A- Alkali metals
    • Group 2A- Alkaline earth metals
    • Group 7A-halogens
    • Group 8A-noble gases
  22. Metals
    • Tend to lose electrons to form cations
    • Shiny, lusterous
    •  Conduct heat and electricity
    •  Malleable and ductile
    •  Most are solids at room temperature
  23. Non-metals
    • Tend to gain electrons to form anions
    • Not shiny, not lusterous
    • Not conduct heat or electricity
    • Not malleable and not ductile
    •  Most are liquids or gases at room temperature
  24. Diatomic elements
    • H2
    • N2
    • O2
    • F2
    • Cl2
    • Br2
    • I2
  25. Cations
    = ions with a net positive charge, resultfrom electron loss
  26. Anions
    = ions with a net negative charge, resultfrom electron gain
  27. Type I ion
    • Type I indicates that the metal only forms ONE type of cation
    • All group 1A and 2A metals
    • Aluminum (Al3+)  Zinc (Zn2+)  Silver (Ag+)
    • Ends with "ide"
  28. Type II ions
    Type II indicates that the metal forms more than one type of cation

    • Two different systems for doing this:
    • Older system is to modify the Latin name of the element to indicate:
    • Lesser with the suffix –ous  Greater with the suffix – ic
    • Newer system is to use Roman numeral to specify the ion used
  29. Binary Acid
    • Those composed of just hydrogen cation and single anion
    • EX: HCl is hydrochloric acid   
  30. Oxyacids
    Those composed of hydrogen cation/s plusoxyanions (polyatomic anions that containoxygen)

    • -ite suffix is the lesser and becomes –ous acid
    • -ate suffix is the greater and becomes –ic acid
  31. Numeric prefixes
    • Mono
    • Di
    • Tri
    • Tetra
    • Penta
    • Hexta
    • Hepta
    • Octa

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