Psych 216

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Psych 216
2012-10-15 01:43:38
Chapter 11 12 13

Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence
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  1. The transistion between childhood and adulthood
  2. A flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity
  3. 11-12 to 14 years: This is a period of rapid pubertal change
    Early Adolescence
  4. 14 to 16 years: Pubertal changes are now nearly complete
    Middle Adolescence
  5. 16 - 18 years: The young people achieve full adult appearance and anticipates assumption of adult roles
    Late Adolescence
  6. The first outward sign of puberty in which there is a rapid gain in height and weight
    Growth spurt
  7. Involve the reproductive organs ovaries, uterus ,and vagina in females; penis, scrotum and testes in males
    Primary sexual characteristics
  8. Breast development in femals and the appearance of underarm and pubic hair in both sexes
    Secondary sexual characteristics
  9. Menarche
    First mestruation
  10. Spermache
    The first ejaculation
  11. Concept and attitude toward their physical appearance
    Body Image
  12. A eating disorder in which young people starve themselves because of fear of getting fat
  13. A eating disorder in which people engage in strict dieting and exercis accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberated vomiting and purging with laxitives
  14. According to Piaget, around age 11, young people enter a period in which they develop a capcity for abstract, systematic and scientific thinking
    Formal operational stage
  15. Adolescents ability to evaluate verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances
    Propositional Thoughts
  16. The major personality acheivement of adolescence and a cruial step toward becoming a productive, content adult
  17. If young people's earlier conflicts were resolved negatively
    or if society limits their choices to one that does not match their ability and desires, they may appear shallow, directionless, and unprepared for the challenges of adulthood
    Identity vs. Identity confusion
  18. Commitment to values, beliefs and goals followed by a period of exploration
    Identity achievement
  19. Exploration without having reached commitment
    Identity moratorium
  20. Commitment in the absence of exploration
    Identity foreclosure
  21. A state characterized by both a lack of commitment and
    Identity diffusion
  22. A sense of ethnic group membership and attitudes and
    feelings associated with that membership
    Ethnic Identity
  23. The first stage of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development
    Preconventional Level
  24. What is the second Level of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development?
    Conventional Level
  25. What is the third Level of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development?
    Postconventional Level
  26. At this Level of Kohlberg's Moral development, conformity to laws and rules preserve positive human relationships and societal order
    Conventional Level
  27. At this Level of Kohlberg's Moral development, morality is defined by abstract, univeral principles of justice
    Postconventional Level
  28. At this Level of Kohlberg's Moral development, morality is externally controlled by rewards, punishment, and authority figures
    Preconventional Level
  29. Increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior and movement towards a more traditional gender indentity
    Gender intensification
  30. A sense to seperate, self-governing.
  31. Group about 5 to 7 members who are close firends and usually resemble one another in clothing, family background and values
  32. A large group of people with similar values
  33. A coherent set of ideas about thought. "Thinking about thinking.
  34. An adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern
    Imaginary audience
  35. A teenager's inflated opinion about their own importance
    Personal fable
  36. The begining of a decline in the functions of organs and systems
    Biological aging/Senescence
  37. Located at the ends of chromosomes, seving as a "cap" to protect the ends from destruction
  38. Naturally occuring high reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen
    Free radicals
  39. Over time protien fibers that make up the body's connective tissue form bonds or links with one another
    Cross-linkage theory of aging
  40. The amount of energy the body uses at complete rest
    Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  41. An array of physical and psychological symptoms that usally appear six to ten days prior to mesnstruation
    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  42. Post Formal thought
    Cognitive thinking beyond Piaget's formal operational stage
  43. Our reflections on how we arrived at facts, beliefs, and ideas
    Epistemic cogntion
  44. What is the average age range for the growth spurt in boys?
    between 12 1/2 and 17 1/2
  45. What is the average age range for the growth spurt in girls?
    between 10 and 16
  46. Name 4 issues with boys that mature early?
    • 1. Relaxed
    • 2. Independent
    • 3. Physically attractive 
    • 4. Self - Confident
  47. Name 4 issues with girls that mature early?
    • 1. Depressed
    • 2. Repressed
    • 3. Anxious
    • 4. Withdrawn
  48. Which ehtnicity is more at risk for an eating disorder?
    • 1. Asian-Americans girls
    • 2. Caucasian-Americans girls
    • 3. Hispanic grils
  49. What kind of boys are usually anorexic?
    Homosexual or Bisexual boys
  50. What is the most successful form of treatment for anorexia or bulemia?
    • 1. Family Therapy
    • 2. Medication
  51. Which is more common between bulemia and anorexia?
  52. What are the risks of teen pregnancy?
    • 1. Low Birth weight
    • 2. Premature Birth
  53. Name 3 ways to prevent teen pregnancy
    • 1. Parental monitoring
    • 2. Education
    • 3. Access to birth control
  54. Continued development of unused synapses of the cerebral cortex
  55. The soft white fatty material that coats stimulated cells that strengthen among various brain regions
  56. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
    A form of thought that begins with hypothetical possibilities and proceeds to reality.
  57. Awareness of thought that leads to new insights into effective strategies for acquiring information and solving problems
  58. Name 3 Problems associated with school transition
    • 1. Lack of persona attention
    • 2. Lower parental involvement
    • 3. Greater academic responsibilities
  59. Name 3 things to help adolescents adjust to school transition
    • 1. Support from parents, teachers and peers
    • 2. Education-centered friends
    • 3. Minimizing competition
  60. Name 4 preventitive strategies for High school drop-outs
    • 1. Parental involvement
    • 2. Remdial instruction and counseling
    • 3. Extracurricular activities
    • 4. Vocational training
  61. Authoratative Parenting
    A parental style that promotes higher achievement. Parents have a good balance of parental monitoring and child autonomy.
  62. A researcher that disagreed with Kohlberg "rights and justice" approach and favored a more feminine "ethics of care" approach.
    Carol Gilligan
  63. Why doesn't everyone reach postconventional stage?
    Kohlberg believed in order for individuals to reach postconventional stage, they need to attain advanced education in philosophy
  64. What are 3 risk factors of Delinquency?
    • 1. Low Parental monitoring
    • 2. Lowo in warmth, high in conflict family
    • 3. Low SES
  65. Name 4 factors related to adolescent suicide
    • 1. Heredity
    • 2. Environmental facotors
    • 3. Learned helplessness
    • 4. Depression
  66. The number of years tht an individual born in a particular year can expect to live
    Average Life expectancy
  67. What was the average life expectancy for a baby born in 1900?
    Just under 50 years old
  68. What was the average life expectancy for women in 2008?
  69. What was the average life expectancy for men in 2008?
  70. What are 4 factors that affect life expectancy?
    • 1. SES
    • 2. Ethnicity/Nationality
    • 4. Education
  71. What is the average maxium life span age?
  72. Dividing information, values and authorities into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they
    Dualistic thinking
  73. Awareness of multiple truths
    Relativistic thinking
  74. A perspective that synthasizes contradiction
    Commitment within relativisitc thinking
  75. How does commitment within relativistic thinking relate to education?
    At this stage, adults seek different perspectives to advance their knowledge and understanding
  76. A logical, commonsense and realistic way of thinking and solving problems
    pragmatic thinking
  77. The coordination of positive and negative feelings into a complex, organized structure
    Cognitive-affective complexity