Physical Geography I

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studying
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169969
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Physical Geography I
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2012-09-09 23:59:53
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Speed light
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Physical geography
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  1. Latitude
    An angular distance measured north or south of the equator from the center of Earth
  2. longitude
    An angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian from the center of Earth
  3. When would you use a large scale map?
    If you wanted a map with a lot of detail of a small area
  4. map projection
    Any orderly system of parallels and meridians drawn on a flat surface
  5. When would you use a graphic scale map?
    if the map were to be enlarged by photocopying
  6. The larger the scale of a map, the __________ (more or less) the area covered by the map and the __________ (more or less) detail it provides. 
    smaller; more
  7. Which of the following describes the property of equal area on a map? 
    equivalence
    equidistance
    proximity
    conformality
    equivalence
  8. Our planet and our lives are powered by
    radiant energy from the Sun.
  9. Which of the following is true?
    The Sun is the largest star in the Milky Way Galaxy.
    The Sun is also a planet.
    The Sun produces energy through fusion processes.
    The Milky Way is part of our Solar System.
    The Sun produces energy through fusion processes.
  10. The basic idea behind the planetesimal hypothesis is that 
    matter in a nebula experiences mutual gravitational attraction, and this results in the gradual accretion of larger and larger bodies – planetesimals.   
  11. Which of the following accurately describes Earth's distance from the Sun?
    Earth is closer to the Sun in January (perihelion) and farther away in July (aphelion).
    It takes light an average of 8 minutes and 20 seconds to travel from the Sun to Earth.
    The Earth-Sun distance averages 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).
    All of these are correct.
    All of these are correct.
  12. Which of the following is true of Earth's orbit about the Sun?
    The orbit does not vary over millions of years.
    It is elliptical.
    It is perfectly circular.
    It takes approximately the same time for Earth to orbit the Sun as it does for the rest of the planets in the solar system to orbit the Sun.
    It is elliptical.
  13. The Sun produces which of the following?
    mainly ultraviolet and X-rays
    only solar wind
    mainly visible light and infrared energy only radiant energy that is beneficial to life
    mainly visible light and infrared energy only radiant
  14. The solar wind consists principally of
    planetesimals.
    free neutrons.
    neutral hydrogen and helium atoms.
    positively charged hydrogen nuclei and free electrons.
    positively charged hydrogen nuclei and free electrons
  15. Which of the following is not true of sunspots?
    They are brighter than the rest of the Sun's surface
    They can produce flares and prominences.
    They can be several times larger than Earth.
    Their origin and dynamics are not fully understood.
    They are brighter than the rest of the Sun's surface
  16. The __________ emits mainly __________ which is also called __________.
    Earth – longwave radiation – ultraviolet
    Sun – shortwave radiation – radio waves
    Earth – shortwave radiation – infrared
    Sun – longwave radiation – infrared
    Earth – longwave radiation – infrared
    Earth – longwave radiation – infrared
  17. The dominant wavelength emitted by Earth is
    gamma radiation.
    visible light.
    X-ray radiation.
    infrared.
    infrared.
  18. On the northern hemisphere's summer solstice, the north polar region receives __________ daily insolation than areas nearer the equator because __________.
    less; the Sun does not rise
    more; the Sun does not set
    more; the Sun is higher in the sky
    more; the Sun does not set
  19. The term "net radiation" refers to the total amount of energy received by Earth.
    the total amount of energy radiated by Earth.
    the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation.
    radiation emitted by satellite networks.
    the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation
  20. At all times during the year, the circle of illumination divides
    Earth between northern and southern hemispheres.
    divides Earth between equal halves of lightness and darkness.
    separates winter from summer.
    divides Earth into eastern and western halves.
    divides Earth between equal halves of lightness and darkness.
  21. Which of the following results from radiation imbalances at different latitudes?
    hurricanes
    ocean currents
    global winds
    all of the above
    none of the above
    all of the above
  22. Which of the following is true of the number of hours of daylight?
    The number of hours of daylight includes the hours between dawn and twilight, not just the hours from sunrise to sunset.
    The number of hours of daylight varies the least at higher latitudes.
    The number of hours of daylight varies depending on the latitude of the observer.
    The number of hours of daylight varies the most along the equator.
    The number of hours of daylight varies depending on the latitude of the observer.
  23. On which one of the following projections do great circle routes appear as straight lines?
    any conic projection
    Mercator projection
    a gnomonic projection
    Goode's homolosine projection
    a gnomonic projection
  24. Which is not true of Earth's atmosphere?
    The principle substance is air, a mixture of many gases that behaves like a single gas.
    It is the sum of all the exhalations and inhalations of life on Earth.
    Its temperatures range from -90°C (-130°F) degrees to 1200°C (2200°F).
    It protects us from deadly UV radiation, yet lets light through.
    We consider the top of the atmosphere to be 32,000 km (20,000 mi.) from Earth.
    We consider the top of the atmosphere to be 32,000 km (20,000 mi.) from Earth.
  25. Life is possible on Earth primarily because
    variable gases of all types exist in the atmosphere.
    gamma rays and X-rays reach the surface.
    ultraviolet radiation reaches the surface.
    the ozonosphere and ionosphere shield the surface from harmful radiation.
    the ozonosphere and ionosphere shield the surface from harmful radiation.
  26. Three criteria used for classification of the atmosphere explained in the text are
    composition, temperature, and function.
    structure, origin, temperature.
    composition, origin, evolution.
    structure, origin, evolution.
    composition, temperature, and function.
  27. Based on composition, the atmosphere is divided into
    two functional areas that absorb radiation from the Sun. one continuous region.
    two broad classifications:homosphere and heterosphere. the troposphere and the stratosphere.
    two broad classifications:homosphere and heterosphere.
  28. Based on temperature, the atmosphere is divided into nitrogen, oxygen, argon.
    four regions: ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere.
    two broad regions.
    two functional areas that absorb radiation from the Sun.
    four regions: ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere.
  29. Half of Earth's atmosphere lies below an elevation of __________ meters.
    11,000
    8300
    14,000
    5500
    5500
  30. The outermost region of the atmosphere, based on composition, is the
    troposphere.
    homosphere.
    thermosphere.
    heterosphere.
    heterosphere.
  31. The heterosphere is the layer of the atmosphere in which the gases are __________ because of __________. poorly mixed; thermal motions (i.e., convection)
    poorly mixed; the influence of gravity which causes gases of different weight to separate into layers
    well mixed; thermal motions (i.e., convection)
    well mixed; the influence of gravity which causes gases of different weight to diffuse randomly
    poorly mixed; the influence of gravity which causes gases of different weight to separate into layers
  32. Which of the following is true of gases in the heterosphere?
    The hydrogen and helium occur at the top of the heterosphere, and the nitrogen and oxygen at the bottom. Nitrogen occurs at the top, followed–in descending order–by helium, oxygen and hydrogen.
    The hydrogen, helium, oxygen and nitrogen are well mixed.
    The nitrogen and oxygen occur at the top of the heterosphere and the hydrogen and helium at the bottom.
    The hydrogen and helium occur at the top of the heterosphere, and the nitrogen and oxygen at the bottom.
  33. The region of the atmosphere that is so evenly mixed that it behaves as if it were a single gas is the
    exosphere.
    heterosphere.
    homosphere.
    thermosphere.
    homosphere.
  34. The thermopause is located
    approximately 480 km (300 mi.)above Earth's surface
     between the mesosphere and the thermosphere.
    wherever -90°C (-130°F) is recorded.
    at the bottom of the homosphere.
    approximately 480 km (300 mi.)above Earth's surface.
  35. The highest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the __________ because __________.
    thermosphere; carbon dioxide has accumulated to very high levels in this layer
    stratosphere; methane is such an effective greenhouse gas
    thermosphere; it is in direct contact with high energy solar radiation
    mesosphere; high intensity solar radiation causes strong chemical reactions with ozone, and this heats the layer to very high temperatures.
    troposphere; infrared radiation from the ground heats this layer more than any other layer
    thermosphere; it is in direct contact with high energy solar radiation
  36. The thermosphere closely corresponds to the
    exosphere.
    the homosphere.
    the ionosphere.
    the heterosphere.
    both the ionosphere and the heterosphere.
    both the ionosphere and the heterosphere.
  37. Which of the following lists the correct sequence of gases, from most to least, in terms of percentage within the homosphere?
    nitrogen, argon, oxygen, xenon, carbon dioxide
    oxygen, ozone, nitrogen, PAN, carbon dioxide
    oxygen, nitrogen, neon, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, trace gases
    nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, trace gases
  38. The three stable (i.e., nonvariable) gases in the atmosphere, in order of abundance from most to least, are
    oxygen, argon, nitrogen.
    oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon.
    nitrogen, oxygen, argon.
    carbon dioxide, argon, oxygen.
    nitrogen, oxygen, argon
  39. The two most abundant gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen and water vapor.
    oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    nitrogen and oxygen.
    water vapor and carbon dioxide.
    nitrogen and oxygen.
  40. Which is true of the amount of CO2 in our atmosphere? The level of CO2 increased at the rate of 1.1% per year from 1990 to 1999.
    The level of CO2 is currently over 390 ppm.
    The level of CO2 has been increasing at the rate of 3.1% per year since 2000.
    The level of CO2 is higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years.
    They are all true.
    They are all true.
  41. Which is true of the level of CO2 in our atmosphere?
    The level of CO2 is decreasing at 3.1% per year.
    It is currently over 390 ppm.
    The level of CO2 was much higher in 1955 than today.
    The rate of increase leveled out in 1976.
    It is currently over 390 ppm.
  42. Which of the following is not true of carbon dioxide?
    It is a natural product of life processes (i.e., respiration). The amount of carbon dioxide has increased as a result of human activities.
    It occurs in large amounts in the atmosphere–as one would expect given the important role it plays in life processes and in regulating the temperature of the planet.
    It is critically important in regulating the temperature of the planet.
    All of the above are true.
    It occurs in large amounts in the atmosphere–as one would expect given the important role it plays in life processes and in regulating the temperature of the planet.
  43. Increased levels of ultraviolet light at Earth's surface
    pose a threat of skin cancer to all races.
    have been identified as causing damage to oceanic life forms.
    are tied to the general reduction in stratospheric ozone. are related to an increasing rate of skin cancer.
    All of these are correct.
    All of these are correct.
  44. The atmospheric portion of the biosphere occurs in the troposphere.
    heterosphere.
    lithosphere.
    ozonosphere.
    troposphere.
  45. Which of the following is false?
    Air pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
    Air molecules exert air pressure through their motion, size, and number.
    The atmosphere exerts a force of 1 kg/cm2; i.e., 14.7 pounds per square inch.
    Air pressure decreases through the troposphere then increases in the stratosphere
    Air pressure decreases through the troposphere then increases in the stratosphere
  46. Variable atmospheric components refer to
    nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide.
    only natural gases and materials.
    both natural and anthropogenic gases and materials. natural sources of dust and aerosols, such as volcanic dust and forest fire smoke, but nothing anthropogenic (human-caused).
    both natural and anthropogenic gases and materials
  47. Our atmosphere acts like the membrane of a cell because it
    blocks inputs very selectively.
    protects the delicate inner workings (life on Earth). blocks all inputs to Earth.
    protects the delicate inner workings ( life on Earth) and because it blocks all inputs to Earth.
    protects the delicate inner workings ( life on Earth) and because it blocks inputs very selectively
    protects the delicate inner workings ( life on Earth) and because it blocks inputs very selectively
  48. Which of the following is true of nitrogen?
    The human body obtains the nitrogen it needs from the air. There is very little nitrogen in the atmosphere.
    The nitrogen the human body needs is derived from food–not the air.
    The nitrogen the human body needs is derived from food–not the air.
  49. Speed of light
    300, 000 kilometers per second (kmps) or 186, 000 miles per second (mps)
  50. Average distance from Earth to the Sun
    150,000,000 km (93,000,000 mi)
  51. average distace from Earth 2 moon
    384,400 km (236,866 miles)

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