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Our body temperature is regulated by what four systems
Muscular, Integumentary, Cardiovascular, and Nervous
Our body fluid composition is regulated by what four systems
Urinary, Digestive, Respiratory, and Cardiovascular
Signs are determined by observation of patient, what are some examples..
Swelling, redness, rashes, pus formation, fever, vomiting, and others.
Symptoms are determined by asking the patient, what are some examples....
Nausea, pain, shortness of breath, headache, generalized malaise.
Laboratory tests are used to determine presence of
is a set of signs and/or symptoms that often occur together. Usually, we don't understand the relationship between these.
High blood pressure
Abnormal fats in blood
Type II diebetes
increased sugar in blood
Examples of disruptions in homeostasis from internal causes
Hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus type II, and autonoimmune diseases
Modes of Disease Transmission
- Contact Transmission
- Common Vehicle Transmission
- Airborne Transmission
Direct (touching, kissing, intercourse)
Indirect (fomites: shared objects)
Droplet (distance < 1 meter)
Common Vehicle Transmission
Contaminated food, water, blood
Pathogens stay alive in droplets or dust traveling > 1 meter
an organism that trnsmits disease
tick, mosquito, flies
If the vector is a person who does not appear to be ill, they are called a
Occur in individuals here and there, with no evidence of widespread incidence in a population;
are more common in one geographic area than elsewhere, but occur at low to moderate levels in that area
Occur at a higher than normal level in a population
disease which has lowered their ability to fight off invading infectious illnes
Nosocomial Infections (Noscomial means "hospital acquired")
Exogenous - transmitted from external environment
Endogenorus - infections arise from organisms already present in or on the patient.
Guidelines from CDC to help reduce transmission of infections
Strict protocols for the disposals of contaminated needles, scalpels, and other equipment