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What does motivation determine?
- Direction of behaviour
- Level of effort
- Level of persistence
Is motivation extrinsic or intrinsic?
Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
The motivation is a process that leads to the conversion of what?
inputs to outputs
Who are the three needs approach originators?
- 1. Maslow
- 2. Alderfer
- 3. McClelland
What is Alderfer's ERG needs theory?
- (Lowest level) E = existence (basic needs for food and water - managers provide pay to fulfill this need)
- (Mid level)R - Relation needs ( the need to have good interpersonal relations etc - managers can promote good interpersonal relations by providing accurate feedback)
- (Highest)G- growth needs - the need for self development and creative and productive work (by allowing people to continually improve their skills)
As lower level needs are satisfied, a person is motivated to satisfy higher level needs. When a person is unable to satisfy higher-level needs (or is frustrated), motivation to satisfy lower level needs increases.
What does McClellands needs theory invovle?
- Need for affiliation: establishing or having good interpersonal relationships
- Need for power: the extent that people desire to control or influence others.
- Need for achievement: peopel with the need for achievement often set clear goals for themselves and like to receive performance feedback
Need for affiliation is not always seen as been good for leaders because they might be too concerned with being liked by others.
What are the levels of Maslows hierachy of needs?
- (low to high)
- 1. Physiological needs - food, water, warmth, rest -basic needs
- 2. Safety needs - security safety- basic needs
- 3. Belongingness and love needs: intimate relationships - psychological needs
- 4. Esteem needs: Prestige and feeling of accomplishment -Psychological needs
- 5. Self actualization: achieving one's full potential including creative activities - self fulfillment needs
what are the hygiene factors and motivators in Hertzberg's two factor theory
- Hygiene factors - Pay, working conditions, supervisors, company policies, fringe benefits (hygiene factors help to prevent dissatisfaction
- Motivators - Achievement, responsibility, work itself, recognition, growth and advancement (motivators help to promote satisfcation)
- between the hygiene and motivation is a neutral point at which there is no dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. If hygiene factors are not met then there is high dissatisfaction if hygiene and motivators are met there is high satisfaction.
Vroom's VIE expentancy theory:
The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high perfomance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes.
Effort (an important input) - Expectency (belief that if I try hard I can do better) - Performance - Instrumentatility (belief that if I do better, I get a better reward - Outcome - Valience (value of the outcome to the person vs indifference or aversion)
theory of motivation that focuses on people's perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work imputs (balance?)
a theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effects
Learning theories 1: reinforcement
- Positive Reinforcement - positive behaviour followed by positive consequences (manager praises the employee)
- Negative Reinforcement - positive behaviour followed by removal of negative consequences (managers stops nagging the employee)
- Punishment - Negative behaviour followed by negative consequences (Manager demotes the employee)
- Extinction - Negative behaviour followed by removal of positive consequences (Manager ignores the behaviour)
Learning theories 2: Social learning theory
- •Vicarious (observational) learning
- •Self-reinforcement (feelings of accomplishment, rewards
- you give to yourself for accomplishing something)
- •Self-efficacy (beliefs about your ability to perform a behaviour)
The role of pay
- Pay can be related to
- all the theories mentioned so
- far. But there are still
- –Reward teams or individuals?
- –Timing of rewards?
- –How to measure performance?
- –Will pay always motivate performance anyway?
What would a manager have to do to motivate you in your ideal job after graduation?
- •What needs would you try to satisfy? (Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, McClelland)
- •Whom will you compare yourself with? (equity theory)
- •What would your (personal) goals be on this job?
- •What forms of reinforcement should your manager use?
- •Would you want to have the opportunity for vicarious
- How important will pay be to you?