IT Vocab Quiz # 2

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IT Vocab Quiz # 2
2012-09-10 16:16:11
IT Vocabulary

IT Vocab words for IT for Managers class
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  1. HTTPS
    (Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a Web protocol developed by Netscape and built into its browser that encrypts and decrypts user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the Web server.
  2. ICANN
    (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is the private (non-government) non-profit corporation with responsibility for IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root-server system management functions.
  3. IP
    In the most widely installed level of the Internet Protocol (IP) today, an IP address is a 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet. When you request an HTML page or send e-mail, the Internet Protocol part of TCP/IP includes your IP address in the message (actually, in each of the packets if more than one is required) and sends it to the IP address that is obtained by looking up the domain name in the Uniform Resource Locator you requested or in the e-mail address you're sending a note to. At the other end, the recipient can see the IP address of the Web page requestor or the e-mail sender and can respond by sending another message using the IP address it received.
  4. Protocol
    in information technology, a protocol is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate.
  5. Secure
    Sockets Layer (SSL)
  6. Michael Porter's model that assesses industry characteristics and profitability by means of five competitive forces: bargaining power of suppliers, threat of substitution, bargaining power of consumers, rivalry among firms, and threat of new entrants.
  7. spider
  8. A Web crawler is a computer program that browses the World Wide Web in a methodical, automated manner
  9. TCP/IP
    (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet.
  10. URL
    (Uniform Resource Locator, previously Universal Resource Locator) - usually pronounced by sounding out each letter but, in some quarters, pronounced "Earl" - is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the Internet.
  11. W3C
  12. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) exists to realize the full potential of the Web.  The W3C is an industry consortium which seeks to promote standards for the evolution of the Web and interoperability between WWW products by producing specifications and reference software.
  13. Web
  14. Web
  15. A web
    • server is a program that, using the client-server model and HTTP, serves the
    • files that form web pages to web users (whose computers contain HTTP clients
    • that forward their requests).
  16. World
    Wide Web (WWW or W3)
  17. A
    • technical definition of the World Wide Web is: all the resources and users on
    • the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).  According to Tim Berners-Lee, co-founder of
    • the W3C, "The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible
    • information, an embodiment of human knowledge."
  18. Client-Server
  19. Software
    • applications that require code on both the client computer and the server
    • computer. Example is email.
  20. Cloud
  21. The
    computing network on the internet.
  22. Firmware
  23. Computer
    • software that is installed into devices such as printers, print services, and
    • various types of communication devices.
  24. Memory
  25. The
    • movement of programs and data into and out of memore. If a computer has
    • insufficient memory for its workload, swapping will degrade system
    • performance.
  26. Volatile
  27. Data
    that will be lost when the computer or device is not powered.
  28. Metadata
  29. Data
    that describes other data.
  30. Unified
    Modeling Language (UML)
  31. A series
    • of diagramming techniques that facilitates OOP development. UML has dozens of
    • different diagrams for all phases of system development. UML does not require
    • or promote any particular development process.
  32. Domain
    Name Resolution
  33. The
    process of converting a domain name into a public IP address.
  34. Dynamic
    Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  35. A
    • service provided by some communications devices that allocates and
    • de-allocates a pool of IP addresses. A device that hosts the DHCP service is
    • called a "DHCP server."
  36. Layered
  37. Different
    • ways of arranging the layers of communication protocols for transmission of
    • data across networks. Example is TCP/IP.
  38. MAC
  39. A
    • permanent address given to each network interface card (NIC) at the factory.
    • This address enables the device to access the network via a Level-2 protocol.
    • No two NIC devices will ever have the same MAC address. Also called a
    • physical address.
  40. Information
  41. Islands
    of automation that work in isolation from one another.
  42. Process
  43. In an
    • ERP application, a comprehensive set of inherent processes for all
    • organizational activities, each of which is documented with diagrams that use
    • a set of standardized symbols.
  44. AdWords
  45. A Web
    • 2.0 advertising product from Google. Vendors agree to pay a certain amount to
    • Google for use of particular search words, which link to the vendor's site.
  46. Dirty
  47. Problematic
    • data that affects the mining process. Examples are a value of "B"
    • for customer gender or a value of "213" for customer age. 
  48. RFM
  49. A way of
    • analyzing and ranking customers according to the recency, frequency, and
    • monetary value of their purchases.
  50. Hashing
  51. A method
    • of mathematically manipulating an electronic message to create a string of
    • bits that characterize the message.
  52. Authorization
  53. The
    function of specifying access rights to resources in a security context
  54. Strong
  55. A
    • password with the following characteristics: 7+ characters; does not contain
    • the user's user name, real name, or company name; contains no complete
    • dictionary words; different from previous passwords; contains mix of
    • upper/lower case letters, numbers, and special characters.
  56. Systems
  57. The
    • mental process of making one or more models of the components of a system and
    • connecting the inputs and outputs among those components into a sensible
    • whole, one that explains the phenomenon observed. 
  58. Virtual
  59. A
    • meeting in whiich participants do not meet in the same place and possibly not
    • at the same time.
  60. information
  61. A group
    of components that interact to produce information.
  62. Moore's
  63. A law,
    • created by Gordon Moore, stating that the number of transistors er square
    • inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months. Moore's prediction has
    • proved generally accurate in the 40 years since it was made.
  64. asynchronous
  65. Information
    • exchange that occurs when all members of a work team do not meet at the same
    • time, such as working different shifts or in different locations.
  66. synchronous
  67. Information
    • exchange that occurs when all members of a work team meet at the same time,
    • such as face-to-face meetings or conference calls.
  68. Transaction
    Processing System (TPS)
  69. An
    information system that supports operational decision making.
  70. Voice
    over IP (VoIP)
  71. A
    technology that provides telephone communication over the internet. 
  72. Wiki
  73. A
    • knowledge base maintained by its users; processed on web sites that allow
    • users to add, remove, and edit content.
  74. Business
    Process Management (BPM)
  75. A
    • systematic process of modeling, creating, implementing, and assessing
    • business processes. 
  76. Digital
  77. A divide
    created between those who have internet access and those who do not.
  78. Five
    Forces Model
  79. Michael
    • Porter's model that assesses industry characteristics and profitability by
    • means of five competitive forces: bargaining power of suppliers, threat of
    • substitution, bargaining power of consumers, rivalry among firms, and threat
    • of new entrants.
  80. Application
  81. Programs
    • that perform a business function. Some application programs are general
    • purpose; such as Excel or Word. Other applications are specific to a business
    • funciton, such as accounts payable.
  82. Cache
  83. A file
    • on a domain name resolver that stores domain names an IP addresses that have
    • been resolved. When others need to resolve that same domain name, there is no
    • need to go through entire resolution process. It can supply the IP address
    • from the local file.
  84. Linux
  85. A
    • version of Unix that was developed by the open source community. There is no
    • fee to use Unix which is a operating system for Web servers.
  86. Mac OS
  87. An
    • operating system developed by Apple Computer for the Macintosh. The current
    • version of Mac OS X is primarily used by the arts community.
  88. Open
    Source Community
  89. A
    • loosely coupled group of programmers who mostly volunteer their time to
    • contribute code to develop and maintain common software. Examples are Linux
    • and My SQL.
  90. Thin
  91. A
    • software application that requires nothing more than a browser and can be run
    • on only the user's computer.
  92. Entity-Relationship
    Data Model (E-R)
  93. Popular
    • technique for creating a data model wherby developers define the things that
    • will be stored and identify the relatinships among them.
  94. Foreign
  95. A column
    • or group of columns used to represent relationships. Values of the foreign
    • key match values of the primary key in a different table.
  96. Query
  97. A
    request for data from a database.
  98. Communication
  99. A means
    • for coordinating activity between two or more communicating computers. Two
    • machines must agree on the protocol to use, and they must follow that
    • protocol as they send messages back and forth. There is so much to do that
    • communication tasks are broken up into layers of protocol.
  100. International
    Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  101. ISO sets worldwide standards. They developed a seven-layer protocol architecture called Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). Portions of OSI are incorporated into TCP/IP protocol architecture.
  102. IPv6
  103. An
    • internet layer protocol created to provide for more IP addresses and other
    • benefits.
  104. Network
    Address Translation (NAT)
  105. The
    • process of changing public IP addresses into private network IP addresses,
    • and the reverse.
  106. Top-Level
    Domain (TLD)
  107. The last
    • letteres in any domain name. Examples are .com or .org.
    • For non U.S. domain names the TLD is often a two letter abbreviation for the
    • country in which the service resides.
  108. Customer
    Relation Management (CRM)
  109. The set
    • of business processes for attracting, selling, managing, and supporting
    • customers.
  110. Just-In-Time
    Inventory Policy (JIT)
  111. Seeks to
    • have production inputs (raw materials and work-in-process) delivered to the
    • manufacturing site just as they are needed. Reduces inventory carrying cost.
  112. Materials
    Requirement Planning (MRP)
  113. An
    • information system that plans the need for materials and inventories of
    • materials used in the manufacturing process. MRPII includes the planning pf
    • personnel, equipment, and facilities requirements.
  114. Service-Oriented
    Architecture (SOA)
  115. Processing
    • philosophy that advocates that computing systems use a "standard
    • method" to declare the services they provide and the interface by which
    • those services can be requested and used. Web services are an implementation
    • of SOA.
  116. Bullwhip
  117. Phenomenon
    • in which the variability in the size and timing of orders increases at each
    • stage up the supply chain, from customer to supplier.
  118. Business-To-Government
    E-Commerce (B2G)
  119. Sales
    between companies and governmental organizations.
  120. E-Commerce
  121. The
    • buying and selling of goods and services over public and private computer
    • networks.
  122. Crowdsourcing
  123. The process by which organizations involve their customers in the design and marketing of products.
  124. Mashup
  125. The combining of output from two or more web sites into a single user experience.
  126. Microblog
  127. A web
    • site on which users can publish their opinions, just like a web blog, but the
    • opinions are restricted to small amounts of text. Example is Twitter.
  128. Social
    Networking (SN)
  129. Connections
    • of people with similar interests. Today, social networks are typically
    • supported by Web 2.0 technology.
  130. Viral
  131. A
    • marketing method used in the Web 2.0 world in which users spread news about
    • products and services to one another.
  132. Supply
  133. A
    • network of organizations and facilities that transforms raw materials into
    • products delivered to customers.
  134. Three-Tier
  135. Architecture
    • used by most e-commerce server applications. The tiers refer to three
    • different classes of computers. The user tier consists of users' computers
    • that have browsers that request and process web pages. The server tier
    • consists of computers that run web servers and in the process generate web
    • pages and other data in response to requests from browsers. Web servers also
    • process application programs. The third tier is the database tier, which runs
    • the DBMS that processes the database.
  136. Data
  137. Facilities
    • that prepare, store, and manage data for reporting and data mining for
    • specific business functions. 
  138. Business
    Intelligence (BI)
  139. Information
    containing patterns, relationships, and trends.
  140. Clickstream
  141. E-commerce
    • data that describes a customer's clicking behavior. Such data includes
    • everthing the customer does at the web site.
  142. Knowledge
    Management (KM)
  143. The
    • process of creating value from intellectual capital and sharing that
    • knowledge with employees, managers, suppliers, customers, and others who need
    • it.
  144. Online
    Analytical Processing (OLAP)
  145. A
    • dynamic type of reporting system that provides the ability to sum, count,
    • average, and perform other simple arithmetic operations on groups of data.
    • Such report are dynamic because users can change the format of the reports
    • while viewing them.
  146. Market-Basket
  147. A
    • data-mining technique for determining sales patterns. A market-basket
    • analysis shows the products that customers tend to buy together.
  148. Neural
  149. A
    • popular supervised data-mining technique used to predict values and make
    • classifications, such as "good prospect" or "poor
    • prospect."
  150. Real
    Simple Syndication (RSS)
  151. A
    • standard for subscribing to content sources; similar to an email system for
    • content. 
  152. Pilot
  153. A type
    • of system conversion in which the organization implements the entire system
    • on a limited portion of the business. The advantage is that if the system
    • fails, the failure is contained within a limited boundary. This reduces
    • exposure of the business and also protects the new system from developing a
    • negative reputation throughout the organization.
  154. Phased
  155. The new
    • system is installed in pieces across the organization. Once the given piece
    • works, then the organization installs and tests another piece of the system,
    • until the entire system has been installed. 
  156. Parallel
  157. The new
    • system runs in parallel with the old one for a while. Parallel installation
    • is expensive because the organization incurs the costs of running both
    • systems.
  158. Plunge
  159. The
    • organization shuts off the old system and starts the new system. If the new
    • system fails, they are in trouble. Nothing can be done until the new system
    • is fixed or the old one is reinstalled. Because of the risk, this method of
    • installation should be avoided. 
  160. Systems
    Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
  161. The
    • classical process used to develop information systems. These basic tasks of
    • systems development are combined into the following phases: system
    • definition, requirements analysis, component design, implementation, and
    • system maintenance.
  162. Cloud
  163. A form
    • of hardware/software outsoucing in which organizations offer flexible plans
    • for customers to lease hardware and software facilities.
  164. Enterprise
    Application Integration (EAI)
  165. The
    • integration of existing systems by providing layers of software that connect
    • applications and their data together.
  166. Green
  167. Environmentally
    • conscious computing consisting of three major components: power management,
    • virtualiazation, and e-waste management.
  168. Virtualization
  169. The
    • process by which multiple operating systems share the same computer hardware,
    • usually a server.
  170. Hot Site
  171. A
    • remote processing center run by a commercial disaster-recovery service that
    • provides equipment a company would need to continue operations after a
    • disaster. 
  172. Cold Site
  173. Remote
    • processing centers that provide office space, but no computer equipment, for
    • use by a company that needs to continue operations after a disaster.
  174. Digital
  175. Encrypted
    • message that uses hashing to ensure that plaintext messages are received
    • without alteration.
  176. Malware
  177. Viruses,
    worms, trojan horses, spyware, and adware.
  178. Phishing
  179. A
    • technique for obtaining unauthorized data that uses pretexting via email.
    • The  phisher pretends to be a
    • legitimate company and sends an email requesting confidential data, such as
    • account numbers, Social Security numbers, account passwords, and so forth.
  180. Sniffing
  181. A
    • technique for intercepting computer communications. With wired networks,
    • sniffing requires a physical connection to the network. With wireless
    • networks, no such connection is required.
  182. Spoofing
  183. When
    • someone pretends to be someone else witht heintent of obtaining unauthorized
    • data. 
  184. Trojan
  185. Viruses
    • that masquerades as a useful program or file. A typical trojan horse appears
    • to be a computer game, an MP3 music file, or some other useful, innocuous
    • program.
  186. Worm
  187. A virus
    • that propagates itself using the internet or some other computer network.
    • Worm code is written specifically to infect another computer as quickly as
    • possible.
  188. Spyware
  189. Programs installed on the user's computer without the user's knowledge or permission that reside in the background and, unknown to the user, observe the user's actions and keystrokes, modify computer activity, and report the user's activities to sponsoring organizations. Malicious spyware captures keystrokes to obtain user names, passwords, account numbers, and other sensitive information. Other spyware is used for marketing analyses, observing what users do, web sites visited, products examined and purchased, and so forth.
  190. Adware
  191. Programs installed on the user's computer without the user's knowledge or permission that reside in the background and, unknown to the user, observe the user's actions and keystrokes, modify computer activity, and report the user's activities to sponsoring organizations. Most adware is benign in that it does not perform malicious acts or steal data. It does, however, watch user activity and produce pop-up ads.
  192. Automatic
    Speech Recognition (ASR)
  193. Automatic conversion of spoken words to computer text
  194. Primary
  195. In relational database design, a unique key can uniquely identify each row in a table.
  196. Software-as-a-Service
  197. (1)
    • Business model whereby companies (such as Google,, and eBay)
    • provide license-free services based on their software, rather than providing
    • software as a product (using software-usage licenses). Software as a service
    • is an example of Web 2.0. (2) Business model whereby companies (Microsoft,
    • Oracle) provide paid-for services based on their software. Users need not
    • install software on their computer, but rather pay a fee to use software
    • installed on the seller's servers, somewhere in the cloud.