Med-Surge Chapter 13
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What is phagocytosis
The ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes
Which cells practice Phagocytosis?
Two types of leukocytes (WBC's), nutrophils, and monocytes
Signs and symptoms of Systemic inflamation
- Muscle aches
What is the sequence of the transmition of infection?
- 1 - a suseptable hoast
- 2 - a reservior
- 3 - a portal of exit
- 4 - a mode of transfer
- 5 - a portal of entry
- 6 - a suseptable hoast
what is a suseptable hoast? (in the sequence of infection)
not all people who are exposed to a disease causing micro organism become ill. properly immunuzed people, for example are not suseptiable hoasts.
what is a reservoir? (in the sequence of infection)
- Areas in which organisms can pool and reproduce.
- EX. human or animal tissue, soil or animal feces
What is a Portal of exit? (in the sequence of infection)
- rout by which an infectious organism leaves one hoast, and travles to another.
- EX. GI tract, nose, mouth
What is a mode of transfer? (in the sequence of infection)
- the means by which a microorganism is transported to a hoast.
- EX. Direct (STD's), Indirect (Dropplest from a rogue sneeze), Common vehicle (water,blood,air),
What is a portal of entry
- dooryays, or pathways into a hoast.
- EX mucous membranes, openwounds, ect.
Name seven infectious agents
- Bacteria -one celled organism capable of multiplying in a suseptiable hoast
- EX. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
- Viruses very small microorganisms capable of causing significant morbidity in humans
- EX. HIV
- Fungi vegatible like organisms that exist by feeding on organic mater
- EX. Cryptococcus, Aspergillus
- Protozoa a large group of one celled organisms
- EX Entamoeba Hystolytica
- Rickettsaie micro organisms betwen virus and bacteria size
- EX. Rocky mountain spotted feaver.
- helmiths Worms
- EX. Tapeworms, Hook worms
- mycoplasmas multi shaped geam negative organisms without cell walls
- prions Abnormal (protien) Particles that have no nucleus
- EX. The cows, theyve gone mad!
Nosocomial infections... lets talk about them
- now called Health - care associated infections, (HAI's)
- are usually more serious/ virulant than regular infections
- a growing number are no longer suseptable to previously effective antobiotics. (Multidrug resistant organisms((MDROS))
What is the first Bodys first line of defense aganst invading organisms?
- The Skin, and mucous membranes of the body.--
- it acts as a covering, and succretes substances that inhibit growth of micro organisms.
What is the first Bodys Second line of defense aganst invading organisms?
involves two processes, Phagocytosis and inflamation
Types of Leukocytes, and their purpos
- Nutrophils - Fight Bacteria infections
- Monocytes - become micro phages and consume many a forigne substance.
- Eosinophils - fight parasitic infections and increase during allergic reactions
- Basophils - initiate the inflamitory response and release histimine.
used for all patients in hospitals reguardless of their healthe care status.
Transmittion based precautions
- Airborne infection isolation percautions,
- used when careing for patients eho have diseases that are spread through the air.
- Private room, negative air preassure, wear respiratory protection when entering the room, limit patient transport , and mask him.
- Droplet precautions
- used for patients with infections which are spread by dropplets or dust.
- private or cohort room, wear mask when working within three feet.,patient transport , and mask him.
- Contact Precautions
- use for patients who have infections which are spread through direct skin - to - skin contact.
- gloves handwashing gown limit transport
Allergy test -- how its done
- performed by injectins small amounts of allergen under the skin, or just by pricking the surface. the reaction to these allergens are monotered, for a degree of wheal - and flare reaction
- once allergic agents specific to the patient are identified, injections of increasing amounts of these alergens are injected into the patient over time intill desensatization to that agent can occur
What is anaphalaxis
- an extreme allergic reaction to an allergen entering the blood stream. can happen within a minute. can lead to shock, coma, and death.
- histimine relased in anaphalaxis cause bronchiospasim, vasodialation and increased capillary permiability throught the body, which causes fluid to leave circulation and permiate the tissues
* which hormone is an anti-nflamitory substance, where does it come from?
CORTISOL produced in the adrenal cortex
Medical asepsis vs Surgiccal asepsis
- Medical asepsis - clean tecnique, limiting the spread of organisms as much as possible.
- refers to handwashing, changeing bedpans, ect.
- Surgical asepsis - Sterile tecnique - Eliminating organisms from any object that comes in contact with the patient.
Organs involved in the immunity process
thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and liver.
what is important to be in a diet for the healing process
Foods high in vitamin C, zinc and otherimportant vitamins and minerals
what is clostridium difficile infection is and what it iscaused by
- The organism Clostridiumdifficile resides in the gastrointestinal tract of many individuals
- · It is kept in check by the normal bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials can kill enough of the normal flora to allow C. difficile to grow out of control, producing severe colitis and diarrhea.
Know the modes of transfer
- Mode of transfer refers to the means by which a microorganism is transported to a host.
- Direct contact refers to the transfer ofmicroorganisms directly, as occurs in sexually transmitted infections
- Indirect contact occurs when pathogens are spreadthrough droplets expelled during a sneeze or a cough or through inanimateobjects such as eating utensils
- Common vehicle transmission occurs when water, food, blood or air currents contaminated with a pathogen are shared by many people.
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