Hist final Part 8
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Regans whole career was
attacked jimmy carter for not taking a hard line, forced the Ford administration to stop using the word detaunte
Regan called for what with the soviet union
should destroy all over 50,000 nuclear warheads.
Regans contribution to the soviet union
recognized changes were taking place on the soviet union then encouraging them. Regan did not actually end the cold war.
1985 Mikhail Gorbachev took over the soviet union
he came out of the Soviet KGB. It looked like he had good credentials. Immediately, he called for a new restructuring of the soviet union. Fundamental reason was the failure of the soviet economy, soviet agriculture failed much earlier (1960's). During the 70's, soviets began to buy massive amounts of grain.
How did the soviet manage to buy all this food?
They benefited by the OPEC embargo. Forced oil prices far up. Soviet union was an oil provider. A lot of western currency went into the soviet treasury. Soviets used this revenue to buy grain to feed the people. By 1982, oil prices plummeted, major global recession 1981-1982. Soviets needed western technology and credits to keep up, could no longer depend on oil revenue.
In the context of this economic failure, Gorbachev and others decided that
future would be restructuring the soviet economy. The soviets needed the west and western technology. They knew this wouldn't happen unless the tensions were reduced. Gorbachev reached these decisions even before most of the Regan military build up took place.
Regan during the 1980's criticized
- The carter administration for not spending enough on military. So in 1981 Regan started a huge military build up, but it
- took until 1985 to really have a large amount of military produced. Far before the actual products, Gorbachev had already made his fundamental decision about the economy. Thus, Gorbachev was not really responding to the military build up but the economy. Eventually Washington started to take him more seriously and started to meet with Gorbachev.
Meetings between Regan and Gorbachev
- Geneva Summit conference : November 1985, the first meeting between Gorbachev and Regan
- Reykjavik: Second meeting. October 1986 in Iceland.
- Washington: December 1987
- Moscow: July 1988
What happened at Reykjavik?
- 1986, Regan outlined a very bold disarmament plan. Proposed both soviets and US abolish all offensive nuclear weapons.
- (Conservatives criticizing Obama conveniently forgot about this) Gorbachev agreed with Regan, but thought also missile defense should go too. Regan would not give up SDI. This led to breakdown, and failure to reach agreement.
What happened in Washington?
1987, reached more limited agreement. Both sides agreed to scale back number of missiles that could carry warheads. This was the first time there was actually a reduction. Agreements in 70's slowed down the race but this time was the first deduction. Sec of State George Shultz played a critical role in helping implement Regan's agenda. Began to recognize that Gorbachev was a new kind of leader and opened new negotiations that had not previously existed. Colon Powell also played a role. Top advisors also encouraged Regan. Cold war did not end during Regans presidency.
George HW was what?
Regans VP, elected president in 1988
Bush was what?
- One of the best qualified presidents ever to deal with foreign affairs. The only predecessor who had similar credentials was
- John Quincy Adams (Adams was an American ambassador prior to sec of state prior to presidency). Bush in 70's was US ambassador to UN. Named as director of CIA in mid 70's. American representative to china in latter part of 1970's. Came home, became presidential candidate, lost to Regan, so became Regan's VP. Involvement in national security matters was high. Very few presidency have these kinds of credentials
Early in Bush's presidency
- he began to outline a 'new world order' in context of Persian Gulf crisis
- -typical pattern when there is a crisis. Wilson during WWI, Roosevelt did WWII, Truman did during early part of cold war.
- - Gave major address Sept. 11, 1990: outlined a Wilsonian vision of America's role. Basically, projection of his understanding of Americanism onto the rest of the world. If only everyone else could embrace our universal values a new world order could happen.
What were the universal American values?
Freedom, Democracy. Peace, security, rule of law. This kind of world is worthy of our children's futures.
What Wilsonian principles were reaffirmed?
- Open door: open trade. was applied to china in 1900, and increasingly around the world. By mid 1990's it was labeled as Globalization. Global free market community.
- National self determination: as new nations were emerging in eastern Europe, this was a new opportunity for national self
- determination for nations striving to rule themselves. This was articulated in Wilson's 14 points, Roosevelt in Atlantic Charter, Truman Doctrine, and time after time. Now seemed it could be implemented in eastern Europe.
- Collective Security: democratic nations coming together to ensure each others security. Let to creation of UN in WWII. Did not quite function like Truman and Roosevelt had anticipated. Cold war prevented collective security from taking
- place through the UN like others anticipated. Collective Security worked during the Korean war, only because soviet delegation walked out. Now was a new opportunity for collective security.
- Bush's secretary state. Thought it was God's will that people should enjoy freedom and US had special role to play in giving
- this freedom.
- Students and others in Beijing began to protest at Tiananmen Square the communist regime. Chinese military came out with tanks. Ultimately the communist regime would crack down on the students. During the crisis, some naive students
- thought the US would get involved. Bush and Baker recognized the limits of American power and did nothing.
New leadership in China, led by Deng Xiaoping did what?
- Struck a bargain with the Chinese people. under this bargain Xiaoping and his associates began to open the economy of china to the rest of the world. opportunities for investment, technology transfers. So economic reform was taken, political reform was not. Chinese people began to experience the benefits of economic change. Phenomenal economic development (10% per year growth), and new loyalty to Chinese regime by younger Chinese.
During this time what happened in the soviet union?
Collapse of communism in 1989. Bush, Baker, and other top officials did not anticipate what was happening in the soviet union. They assumed that the cold war would continue, so it was difficult to recognize something profound was taking place. Gorbachev began to drive developments in soviet union. in the long run he was not able to control what he unleashed.
1988 - Gorbachev told UN
- nations of eastern Europe were free to make their own destiny. this was part of the Gorbachev doctrine. Breschnev affirmed
- the Breschnev doctrine said eastern European countries were not free to do this. Gorbachev changed this. Leadership in eastern Europe that did not want to remain communist, tested this.
What action took place?
- - 1989, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia were not pro Russian. Began to assert independence. Breschnev tried to stop this for some extent. Bush recognized these Baltic states, who had been absorbed during WWII.
- - Throughout 1980's Poland was area of conflict. Solidarity Labor movement under the leadership of Lech Walensa, began to test limits. Worked closely with Catholic Church (Pope John Paul II was Polish). By 1989, seizure of power by the Solidarity movement. Walensa became new leader and he was accepted by Gorbachev. First anti communist gov. in major eastern European country.
- - Czechoslovakia and Hungary moved summer 1989 to new leadership.
Changes in travel.
Within soviet block it was possible to travel but not outside the eastern block. Now, new governments in Czechoslovakia and Hungary allowed travel to Austria. East Germans recognized these possibilities. East Germans began to travel to Czechoslovakia and Hungary, then slip across to Austria, and some into west Germany.
Since late 1940's western Germans claimed…
It was one country. East and West Germans were one country. So east Germans that left, were considered citizens of the west German state. undermined the Berlin wall.
East Germany reform
New forum organized. Civic collaboration with protestant church. Churches were places where people were allowed to go. Now they were much more attractive, people could meet and conspire. This was not very well known by CIA. Nov 9, 1989, opening of the Berlin Wall.
Opening of Berlin wall
Nov 9, 1989 - was a bit of a mistake. The guards who opened the wall thought they got certain instructions but the East German government did not really say this. East Germans began to bash down the wall, were joined by west Berliners. Led to a sort of celebration.
What would happen in Germany?
West German Chancellor at the time was Helmut Kohl: was determined to re-unify Germany. Question in the West was how to respond to these dramatic developments. The British, French viewed the opening of Berlin wall, reunity of Germany, was quite alarming. George Bush took a strong stand, along with British and French, reunification of Germany. Helmut Kohl and westerners wanted them to be in NATO. Essentially joined east Germany to NATO. Gorbachev did not like this.
Helmut Kohl and Gorbachev did what?
1989- Bargained with Soviets under which Germans paid money to the Soviets. One problem Gorbachev faced was that soviet troops stationed in East Germany would have to be withdrawn. One of the best places in Soviet military was in east Germany (housing, barracks, other perks). So Gorbachev faced if immediately withdrew troops, they may be unhappy and organize a military koo against Gorbachev. West Germans paid Russians to maintain troops in east Germany for a transition period.
1989, crazy year, ended in the toppling of one of the worst dictatorships in eastern Europe
Also independence of republics
- Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and other "stans".
- - At this point Bush was a little more hesitant about recognizing the break up of the soviet union.
- -soviet military put Gorbachev on house arrest to force him to resign. Boris Yeltsin played a key role in stopping the military
- koo. He climbed on a Soviet tank to stop some of the revolutionary movements. This undermined the koo and allowed Gorbachev to come back. He no longer had the same real political power. Power was shifted towards Boris Yeltsin.
Boris Yaltsin was
more democratic. Gorbachev wanted to open to soviet union, but keep the communist party in power. By end of 1991, Gorbachev was ousted by Yaltsin. No longer communism in eastern Europe or soviet union. Soviet union itself no longer existed.
The effect of these changes on the Central America
Gorbachev also limited economic and political assistance to Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Sandinista's caused problems for Carter, and Regan. New Bush administration began to look at new opportunities in central America. One issue on Bush and Gorbechev agenda was situation in Nicaragua could be solved by a peaceful election. Both agreed, so Jan 1990 an election was scheduled. Not the first election..Bush and Gorbachev began to look for settlement.
- - 1984: Daniel Ortega had been elected.
- - Violeta Chamorro won.
Costa Rica hoped
there was a political settlement in Nicaragua.
- Dec. 1989: bush sent American troops to Panama to arrest Manuel Noriega. He was dictator in Panama. Why did they send in troops? One major reason was Noriega had been indicted for drug smuggling in a court in Florida. This would be like
- someone indicted Obama then sent troops to the White House. Noriega was involved in drug running in Panama. Drugs from Latin America came on flights from Panama. His involvement with drugs was not new. He dealed drugs for a long
- time. Also he collaborated with the CIA. In the Contra war, he collaborated with Regan administration, and worked closely with former director George H W Bush. In 1989, he did what leaders are not supposed to do. He decided to support
- the peace movement in Costa Rica, stopped collaborating with CIA. This was betrayal. Drugs were used as a reason to oust him.
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