Med surge chaper 34

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Med surge chaper 34
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2012-09-10 21:02:44
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Med surge chaper 34
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  1. What is HIV?
    • Human immunodificiancy virus, the retrovirus which  causes AIDS
    • Infection with HIV virus causes destruction of immunecells
    • ·         In  retroviruses, transcription of genetic material is reversed.  Ribonucleic acid (RNA) rather than the normal pattern of DNA to RNA.  Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme that is responsible for transcribing RNA into DNA.
    • a person who is HIV pos. may have an entire supply of T4 cellsdepleted every 15 days
  2. what you should have in a care plan for a patient with HIV
    • Assesment,
    • Health history
    • Physical examination
    • interventions:
    • anxiety
    • risk for infection
    • impared oral mucousa
    • imbalancd nutrition: less than body requires
    • acute/ chronic confusion,
    • accute/chronic pain
    • innafective copeing
  3. what signs and symptoms occur with a patient that has HIV.
     K now what signs and symptoms occur with a patient that has HIV. ·         Patients in the initial stage of HIV infection may experience only generalized flulike symptoms such as malaise, nausea and vomiting, decreased appetite, rash, and diarrhea.  Because the symptoms are vague, HIV infection often is no diagnosed in the early stage.  During the Second Latent stage of the disease, patients may no experience any symptoms.  Eventually, they begin to experience frequent and persistent infections.  Patients may present for medical care complaining of fever, night sweats, swollen lymph nodes, or other symptoms specific to the site of infection such as headache, skin lesions that do not heal, sore throat, dyspnea, burning with urination, or diarrhea.  Patients also may report extreme fatigue and weight loss.  Any of these contact with persons possible infected with HIV, a history of intravenous drug abuse using shared needles, or a history of a blood transfusion before 1989 warrants consideration of diagnosis of HIV infection
  4. about the latent stage in HIV
    The virus then enters a latent stage in which it is inactive in the infected, resting CD4 host cells.   When the resting CD4 host cells is activatedfor an immune response, the virus begins to replicate.  Levels of virus are high in the lymph nodeswhere CD4 cells reside, but the levels are low in the blood.  The latent stage can last 2 to 12 years,during which time the patient is asymptomatic although the number of CD4 cellsdeclines
  5. Know the stages of HIV
    • ·         Initial stage of HIV infection lasts 4 to 8 weeks from the time of exposure.  High levels of virus are in the blood.  About 50% of people who become infected with HIV experience generalized flulike symptoms, which is called acute retroviral syndrome.  The other 50% have no symptoms of infection
    • The virus then enters a latent stage in which it is in active in the infected, resting CD4 host cells.   When the resting CD4 host cells is activated for an immune response, the virus begins to replicate.  Levels of virus are high in the lymph nodes where CD4 cells reside, but the levels are low in the blood.  The latent stage can last 2 to 12 years, during which time the patient is asymptomatic although the number of CD4 cells declines. 
    • During the third stage of HIV infection, the patient begins to experience opportunistic infections.  These infections are called opportunistic infections because one can say that these microbes take advantage of the opportunity to infect the HIV- infected person when his or her T cells are low.  Levels of CD4 cells are usually less than 500 cells/mm^3 and declining while levels of virus in the blood are increasing.  This stage can last 2 to 3  years.  Once the CD4 cell levels drop below 200cells/mm^3, the patient is considered to have AIDS Virus levels in the blood are high.  0% of those diagnosed with AIDS have now survived 9 to 10 years after being diagnosed.  HIV/AIDS is becoming more and more of a chronically managed disease than a terminal illness. 
  6. Know what ELISA is and why it used.
    Know what ELISA is and why it used. ·         To be diagnosed as HIV positive, the patient must test positive to an HIV antibody test. (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) ELISA- the ELISA test is usually done first and it has been shown to have 99% reliability.  The western blot test is used as a confirmation test which has been shown to have 99.99% reliability.  ·         Found this on the internet about the test. ·         In an ELISA test, a person's serum is diluted 400-fold and applied to a plate to which HIV antigens have been attached. If antibodies to HIV are present in the serum, they may bind to these HIV antigens. The plate is then washed to remove all other components of the serum. A specially prepared "secondary antibody" — an antibody that binds to human antibodies — is then applied to the plate, followed by another wash. This secondary antibody is chemically linked in advance to an enzyme. Thus the plate will contain enzyme in proportion to the amount of secondary antibody bound to the plate. A substrate for the enzyme is applied, and catalysis by the enzyme leads to a change in color or fluorescence. ELISA results are reported as a number; the most controversial aspect of this test is determining the "cut-off" point between a positive and negative result.
  7. Know what toxoplasmosis and what causes itpg
    Know what toxoplasmosis and what causes itpg 651 Toxoplasma Gondii, A protozoon that causes taxoplasmosis, has a world wide distribution.  Cats, mammals and birds serve as hosts to the causative agent.  Humans become infected by ingesting contaminated, under coded meats or vegetables or by contact with cat feces.  Toxoplasmosis can affect any tissue in the body by affects mostly the brain, lungs, and eyes.  In immunosuppressed patients, toxoplasmosis encephalitis is the most common form.  Unless detected and treated early, toxoplasmosis can be fatal.  Symptoms include dull, constant headache, weakness, seizures, altered level of consciousness, hemiparesis, cerebellar tremor, and visual field defects.  Pulmonary infections result in a feverish illness that mimicsP. jiroveci pneumonia with shortness of breath and a nonproductive caught.  When it affects the eyes, a loss of visual acuity, as well as photophobia, exists.  Bactrim is used to treat toxoplasmosis. Teach patients to wash hands, avoid undercooked and raw meats, and avoid cat litter boxes

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