ch15organicchem

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user annasch95 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. functional group of aldehydes and ketones
    carbonal
  2. C is joined to O with
    a double bond
  3. aldehyde structure
    • ---CHO
    • written like this because otherwise it could look like an alcohol
  4. ketone structure
    • --CO--
    • double bond not shown but assumed
  5. Image Upload
    ketone
  6. Image Upload
    aldehyde
  7. Image Upload
    carbocylic acid
  8. Image Upload
    acid chloride
  9. Image Upload
    ester
  10. Image Upload
    amide
  11. aldehyde general formulas
    • H-C(=O)-H
    • R-C(=O)-H
    • Ar-C(=O)-H
  12. aldehydes come from
    • alcohol dehydrogenation
    • (remiving a hydrogen from an alcohol)
    • same thing as oxidation
  13. Image Upload
    • formaldehyde methanal (IUPAC)
    • smallest aldehyde
  14. Image Upload
    • acetaldehyde ethanal
    • (IUPAC)
  15. naming aldehydes
    • longest chain with carbonal group
    • carbonal group gets #1 position but NO NEED TO # because it's always on the end
    • drop the e and add "al"
    • aldehydes get preferance over all groups named so far
  16. Image Upload
    • benzaldehyde
    • only name
    • common name but recognized by the IUPAC
    • use O,M, or P to indicate position of another group
  17. ketone general formulas
    • R-C(=O)-R
    • R-C(=O)-Ar
    • Ar-C(=O)-Ar
  18. naming ketones
    • drop e, add "-one"
    • only add # of group position if parent has FIVE or more carbons
  19. most simple ketone
    acetone
  20. acetone other names
    • dimethyl ketone (common)
    • propanone (IUPAC)
  21. ethyl methyl ketone give IUPAC
    butanone
  22. diethyl ketone -give IUPAC
    3-pentanone
  23. boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are
    more than ethers and less than alcohols
  24. odors of aldehydes and ketones
    • low aldehydes: pungent odors
    • high aldehydes: pleasant odors
  25. solubility of aldehydes and ketones
    • similar to alcohols
    • 1-4 carbons are soluable
    • solubility decreases as # of carbons increases
    • (C-H bonsa are nonpolar and not soluable, unlike hydrogen bonds)
  26. oxidation of alcohols to carboxylic acids
    • KETONES CAN'T BE OXIDIZED
    • Primary:
    • -adds a =O to where the -OH is
    • -acid catalyst
    • -oxidizing agent: CO3
    • -solvents: pyridine, CH2Cl2
    • (top) CrO2/H+------>(bottom) pyridine/CH2Cl2

    • Secondary:
    • -uses chromium compounds and sulfuric acid
    • -acid catalyst such as H2SO4
    • -oxidizing agent: K2Cr2O7 or CrO2
    • -(top) CrO2/H+------>(bottom)H2SO4
  27. aldehydes and ketones both
    combust
  28. common oxidizing agents for aldehydes
    • Tollen's Reagent
    • agent: Ag+ 
    • complexing agent: NH3 (ammonia)
    • positive aldehyde test: free silver mirrors
    • Benedict's Regent
    • agent: Cu+2
    • complexing agent: citrate
    • positive aldehyde test: Cu2O
    • Fehling's Reagent
    • agent: Cu+2
    • complexing agent: tartrate
    • positive aldehyde test: Cu2O
  29. When Tollen's reagent oxidizes an aldehyde to produce a ________, the ____ ions are reduced to ________ _________.
    • carboxylic acid; Ag+; free silver
    • this method used to silver mirrors
    • glucose used because of its aldehyde functional group
  30. The _____ in Benedict AND Fehling's reagents is reduced to _____ which is _____.
    Cu+2; Cu2O; red
  31. H2 used to reduce aldehydes and ketones to alcohols
    • reduction
    • oposite of oxidation
    • metal catalyst like platnium
  32. hydration of aldehydes and ketones
    • add H2O
    • formaldehyde easily dissolves so easily hydrated
    • acetaldehyde does too to an extent
    • forms hydrates
    •    -take a group with an =O, add the H2O, add one H to the O and add another -OH group, removing the =O and making it an -OH with another -OH group too
    • the more  carbons, the less something can hydrate
    • percentages tell us how much of each thing is left after a reaction
  33. Methanal, AKA and about:
    • AKA formaldehyde
    • irritating odor
    • formalin is a 40% aqueous soloution of formaldehyde (it can be like a 99% reacted reaction but  40% water)
    • starting material for polymers and protiens
    • denatures protiens and makes them insoluable in water and resistant to bacterial decay
    •        -embalming fluid
  34. Ethanal, AKA and about:
    • AKA acetaldehyde
    • volatile liquid
    • produced by oxidation of ethanol
    • produces acedic acid (vinegar)
  35. Propanone, AKA and about:
    • AKA acetone
    • liquid
    • good solvent: mixes with water and most organic compounds
    • mediator
    • nail polish remover
    • formed as a by product of lipid metabolism but futher oxidizes to CO2 and H20
  36. 2,3 butandione is used in
    butter
  37. cis-3-hexenal is found in
    leaves
  38. campor is used in
    bug spraysImage Upload
  39. combustion
    add O2, products are CO2 and H2O

Card Set Information

Author:
annasch95
ID:
170153
Filename:
ch15organicchem
Updated:
2012-09-14 02:17:33
Tags:
chemistry
Folders:

Description:
organic chem
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview