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  1. functional group of aldehydes and ketones
  2. C is joined to O with
    a double bond
  3. aldehyde structure
    • ---CHO
    • written like this because otherwise it could look like an alcohol
  4. ketone structure
    • --CO--
    • double bond not shown but assumed
  5. ketone
  6. aldehyde
  7. carbocylic acid
  8. acid chloride
  9. ester
  10. amide
  11. aldehyde general formulas
    • H-C(=O)-H
    • R-C(=O)-H
    • Ar-C(=O)-H
  12. aldehydes come from
    • alcohol dehydrogenation
    • (remiving a hydrogen from an alcohol)
    • same thing as oxidation
    • formaldehyde methanal (IUPAC)
    • smallest aldehyde
    • acetaldehyde ethanal
    • (IUPAC)
  13. naming aldehydes
    • longest chain with carbonal group
    • carbonal group gets #1 position but NO NEED TO # because it's always on the end
    • drop the e and add "al"
    • aldehydes get preferance over all groups named so far
    • benzaldehyde
    • only name
    • common name but recognized by the IUPAC
    • use O,M, or P to indicate position of another group
  14. ketone general formulas
    • R-C(=O)-R
    • R-C(=O)-Ar
    • Ar-C(=O)-Ar
  15. naming ketones
    • drop e, add "-one"
    • only add # of group position if parent has FIVE or more carbons
  16. most simple ketone
  17. acetone other names
    • dimethyl ketone (common)
    • propanone (IUPAC)
  18. ethyl methyl ketone give IUPAC
  19. diethyl ketone -give IUPAC
  20. boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are
    more than ethers and less than alcohols
  21. odors of aldehydes and ketones
    • low aldehydes: pungent odors
    • high aldehydes: pleasant odors
  22. solubility of aldehydes and ketones
    • similar to alcohols
    • 1-4 carbons are soluable
    • solubility decreases as # of carbons increases
    • (C-H bonsa are nonpolar and not soluable, unlike hydrogen bonds)
  23. oxidation of alcohols to carboxylic acids
    • Primary:
    • -adds a =O to where the -OH is
    • -acid catalyst
    • -oxidizing agent: CO3
    • -solvents: pyridine, CH2Cl2
    • (top) CrO2/H+------>(bottom) pyridine/CH2Cl2

    • Secondary:
    • -uses chromium compounds and sulfuric acid
    • -acid catalyst such as H2SO4
    • -oxidizing agent: K2Cr2O7 or CrO2
    • -(top) CrO2/H+------>(bottom)H2SO4
  24. aldehydes and ketones both
  25. common oxidizing agents for aldehydes
    • Tollen's Reagent
    • agent: Ag+ 
    • complexing agent: NH3 (ammonia)
    • positive aldehyde test: free silver mirrors
    • Benedict's Regent
    • agent: Cu+2
    • complexing agent: citrate
    • positive aldehyde test: Cu2O
    • Fehling's Reagent
    • agent: Cu+2
    • complexing agent: tartrate
    • positive aldehyde test: Cu2O
  26. When Tollen's reagent oxidizes an aldehyde to produce a ________, the ____ ions are reduced to ________ _________.
    • carboxylic acid; Ag+; free silver
    • this method used to silver mirrors
    • glucose used because of its aldehyde functional group
  27. The _____ in Benedict AND Fehling's reagents is reduced to _____ which is _____.
    Cu+2; Cu2O; red
  28. H2 used to reduce aldehydes and ketones to alcohols
    • reduction
    • oposite of oxidation
    • metal catalyst like platnium
  29. hydration of aldehydes and ketones
    • add H2O
    • formaldehyde easily dissolves so easily hydrated
    • acetaldehyde does too to an extent
    • forms hydrates
    •    -take a group with an =O, add the H2O, add one H to the O and add another -OH group, removing the =O and making it an -OH with another -OH group too
    • the more  carbons, the less something can hydrate
    • percentages tell us how much of each thing is left after a reaction
  30. Methanal, AKA and about:
    • AKA formaldehyde
    • irritating odor
    • formalin is a 40% aqueous soloution of formaldehyde (it can be like a 99% reacted reaction but  40% water)
    • starting material for polymers and protiens
    • denatures protiens and makes them insoluable in water and resistant to bacterial decay
    •        -embalming fluid
  31. Ethanal, AKA and about:
    • AKA acetaldehyde
    • volatile liquid
    • produced by oxidation of ethanol
    • produces acedic acid (vinegar)
  32. Propanone, AKA and about:
    • AKA acetone
    • liquid
    • good solvent: mixes with water and most organic compounds
    • mediator
    • nail polish remover
    • formed as a by product of lipid metabolism but futher oxidizes to CO2 and H20
  33. 2,3 butandione is used in
  34. cis-3-hexenal is found in
  35. campor is used in
    bug sprays
  36. combustion
    add O2, products are CO2 and H2O

Card Set Information

2012-09-14 02:17:33

organic chem
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