Ch. Test 1&2
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What is Psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and metal processes.
Why is Psychology different from fields such as law and history?
Psychology's great strenght is that is uses scientific observation to systematically answer questions about all sorts of behaviors.
What is the Reseach Method?
A systematic approach to answering scientific questions.
What is Behavior?
Anything you do-eating, hanging out, sleeping, talking, or sneezing- is a behavior.
What are 2 types of Behaviors?
- overt (can be seen)
- convert (internal processes)
What is Covert Behavior?
Directly observable actions and responses.
What is Enpirical Approach?
You believe something because you researched yourself.
What is Enpirical Evidence?
You believe something because of someone else's research.
What is Ethics?
"The way you want to be treated"
What are some of the major points that psychologists' code of ethics?
- Psychololgists must carry out investigations with respect for the people who participate and with concern for their dignity and walfare.
- Ensure the welfare of animals and treat them humanely.
What are the goals of psychology?
To describe, understand, predict, and control behavior.
What is Pseudopsychology?
Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and pactices that is offered as an explanation of behavior.
Name some examples of Pseudopsychology.
- Phrenology (the shape of ones skull)
- Palmistry (the lines on the hands that reveals personality traits and predict the future)
- Graphology (personality traits are revealed by handwriting)
- Astrology(the position of the stars and planets at the time of one's birth determine personality traits and affect behavior.)
Is critical thinking important?
What is Scientific Method?
A form of critical thinking based on careful measurement and controlled observation.
What are the steps of Scientific Method?
- Making observation
- Defining a problem
- Proposing a hypothesis
- Gather data
- Publish results
What is Theory?
A system of ideas designed to interreiate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing data & predicts future observation.
What is a Hypothesis?
A statment of the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables.
What is Gestalt Psychology?
A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts.
What is Behaviorism?
The school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior.
What is Comparative Psychology?
Much human behavior can be understood in terms of the mental processing of information.
What is Psychoanalytic Psychology?
A approach to psychotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts.
What is Humanistic Psychology?
The interest in human potenetional, ideals, and problems.
What is Paviov's Behaviorism?
Conditioning, a learned reaction to a particular stimulus, to explain most behavior.
What is Experiment?
A formal trail undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis about cause and effect.
What is a Controlled Group?
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable.
What is a Experimental Group?
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition.
What is Random Assignment?
The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental and control groups.
What is a Dependent Variable?
In a experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable.
What is a Independent Variable?
In a experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The vaules that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter.
What is Placebo?
An inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion.
What is Research Bias?
Changes in participants' behavior caused by the unintended influence of a researcher's actions.
What is a Double-Blind Experiment?
An arrangement in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of whether participants are in the experimental group or the control group, including who might have been administered a drug or a placebo.
What is a Single-Blind Experiment?
An arrangement in which participants remain unaware of whether they are din the experimental group or the control group.
What is Observer Bias?
The tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations.
What is Anthropomorphic Error?
The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior.
What is Naturalistic Observation?
Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings.
What is a Correlational Study?
A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables.
What is the Survey Method?
In psycohology, a public polling technique used to answer psychological questions.
What is Threshold?
The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered.
What is Synapse?
The microscopic space between two neutrons, over which messages pass.
What role does the myelin sheath in Multiple Scierosis?
The disease occcurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the myelin in a person's body.
What nervous system controls in "fight or flight" response?
The sympathetic nervous system
Which system returnes your body to normal after arousal?
The parasympathetic nervous system
What is Reflex Arc?
The simplest bahavior, in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response
What techniques are used to study the brain?
- CT Scan
- MRI Scan
- PET Scan
What is Split- Brain?
Cutting of the corpus callosum
Which side of the brain controlls which side of the body?
- Left side brain= Right side body
- Right side brain= Left side body
What are the statistics for left-handed people?
About 10% of the populaion is left-handed
What lobe of the brain is responsible for sight?
The Occipital lobe
What are negative effects for using anabolic steroids?
Voice deeping or baldness in women & shrinking of the testicles, sexual impotence, or breast enlargement in men
What are the major functions of the pineal gland?
Releases a hormone called melation in response to daily variations in light. Melation levels in the bloodstream rise at dusk, peak around midnight, and fall again as morning appoarchs. As far as the brain is concerned, it's bedtime when melatonin levels rise.
What are the major functions of the thyoid gland?
What are the major functions of the adrenal gland?
Is the source of epinephrine and nonepinephrine & produces a set of hormones called corticoids
What are the major functions of the pituitary gland?
To regulate growth , regulating many behaviors, influences other gland.
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