Developing hypothesis day 3

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Developing hypothesis day 3
2012-09-11 00:48:36

lecture 3
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  1. 7 Phases of research
    • -idea-generating phase
    • -problem-definition phase
    • -procedures-design phase
    • -observation phase
    • -data-analysis phase
    • -interpretation phase
    • -communication phase
  2. (phases of research) Idea of generating phase (2)
    • -ideas come from many places
    • *own interests
    • * research and theories of others

    • -nurture and develop ideas
    • *be curious
    • *read what others think and what they have done
  3. (phases) Problem-definition phase (2)
    -ideas are formalized into testable research questions

    • -need to be more critical in this phase
    • *how does idea compare to existing theory and research?
    • *is idea logical?
    • *what does idea predict?
  4. (phase) Procedures-design phase (4)
    -translate ideas into testable hypothesis

    -variables must be defined and procedures selected

    -each step should be planned

    -ethical issues must be considered
  5. (phase) Observation phase (5)
    - "doing the research"

    • - central acitivty of research
    • *early=planning, later= interpret findings

    -data gathered here will answer questions you raised early

    -takes up most time

    -cannot make major adjustments
  6. (phase) Data-analysis phase (2)
    -evaluate the data, usually using stats procedures

    • -stat procedures are selected in the procedures-design phase
    • *many types of stats are available
    • **depends on question and nature of data
  7. (phase) Interpretation phase
    • -making sense out of results
    • *interpret stat findings
    • *how does finding relate to research question?
    • *any alternative interpretations of data?
    • **find ways to falsify the alt. data
  8. (phase) communication phase
    • - try to published work
    • *allows others to...
    • judge
    • build on it
    • challenge
  9. (communication phase) Ways to make research public (2)
    -conference presentations

    -publishing in journals or books
  10. Where do the sources of research questions come from?
    -personal interests

    -unanswered questions from previous research

    -applied questions

    -theory testing
  11. (source of research questions) Theory testing
    -explain new phenomenon

    - test contrasting

    -develop/expand existing theory
  12. (phases)2 types of Reasoning process
    -inductive thinking

    -deductive thinking
  13. (reasoning process phase) Inductive thinking
    -start with observation> develop hypothesis

    -typically used when we do not know much of phenomena

    -need to be careful and not miss important factor
  14. (reasoning process phase) deductive thinking
    -start with theory/hypothesis> collect observations

    -used when we have defined theories

    -allows for stronger conclusions
  15. theories in science (3)
    -simplified framework for explaining complex phenomena

    • -scientific theory must be..
    • *testable
    • *falsifable

    -theoreis organize data and help predict new data
  16. 5 qualities of a good theory
    -they are generative

    -they make precise predictions

    -they can be ambigously tested (falsifiable)

    -they are simple (parsimonious

    -has a "good track record"
  17. Hypothesis
    is a statement that specifies in concrete terms the causual relationship between conceptual variables
  18. 3 basic features of good hypothesis


    • -concrete
    • *variables can be operationally defined
    • *variables are quantifiable (numbers)
  19. types of variables: predictor variable
    • measured by researcher and assumed to cause change in another variable
    • *does not mean causation
    • **correlational
  20. Extraneous/confunding variable
    • any variable that causes change in the dependent variable
    • *Z in X n Y equation
  21. (CYcle) Systematic empirical observations
    ensures that inconsistent observations will be recorded
  22. (CYcle) testing-comparing the observations with the theory
    ensures that inconsistent observations will be counted against the theory
  23. (CYcle) theory about how something works
    theory is revised in light of tests and hopefully becoames accurate