Developing hypothesis day 3
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7 Phases of research
- -idea-generating phase
- -problem-definition phase
- -procedures-design phase
- -observation phase
- -data-analysis phase
- -interpretation phase
- -communication phase
(phases of research) Idea of generating phase (2)
- -ideas come from many places
- *own interests
- * research and theories of others
- -nurture and develop ideas
- *be curious
- *read what others think and what they have done
(phases) Problem-definition phase (2)
-ideas are formalized into testable research questions
- -need to be more critical in this phase
- *how does idea compare to existing theory and research?
- *is idea logical?
- *what does idea predict?
(phase) Procedures-design phase (4)
-translate ideas into testable hypothesis
-variables must be defined and procedures selected
-each step should be planned
-ethical issues must be considered
(phase) Observation phase (5)
- "doing the research"
- - central acitivty of research
- *early=planning, later= interpret findings
-data gathered here will answer questions you raised early
-takes up most time
-cannot make major adjustments
(phase) Data-analysis phase (2)
-evaluate the data, usually using stats procedures
- -stat procedures are selected in the procedures-design phase
- *many types of stats are available
- **depends on question and nature of data
(phase) Interpretation phase
- -making sense out of results
- *interpret stat findings
- *how does finding relate to research question?
- *any alternative interpretations of data?
- **find ways to falsify the alt. data
(phase) communication phase
- - try to published work
- *allows others to...
- build on it
(communication phase) Ways to make research public (2)
-publishing in journals or books
Where do the sources of research questions come from?
-unanswered questions from previous research
(source of research questions) Theory testing
-explain new phenomenon
- test contrasting
-develop/expand existing theory
(phases)2 types of Reasoning process
(reasoning process phase) Inductive thinking
-start with observation> develop hypothesis
-typically used when we do not know much of phenomena
-need to be careful and not miss important factor
(reasoning process phase) deductive thinking
-start with theory/hypothesis> collect observations
-used when we have defined theories
-allows for stronger conclusions
theories in science (3)
-simplified framework for explaining complex phenomena
- -scientific theory must be..
-theoreis organize data and help predict new data
5 qualities of a good theory
-they are generative
-they make precise predictions
-they can be ambigously tested (falsifiable)
-they are simple (parsimonious
-has a "good track record"
is a statement that specifies in concrete terms the causual relationship between conceptual variables
3 basic features of good hypothesis
- *variables can be operationally defined
- *variables are quantifiable (numbers)
types of variables: predictor variable
- measured by researcher and assumed to cause change in another variable
- *does not mean causation
- any variable that causes change in the dependent variable
- *Z in X n Y equation
(CYcle) Systematic empirical observations
ensures that inconsistent observations will be recorded
(CYcle) testing-comparing the observations with the theory
ensures that inconsistent observations will be counted against the theory
(CYcle) theory about how something works
theory is revised in light of tests and hopefully becoames accurate
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