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What is testing?
- Putting numbers or categories onto people
- Usually about individual differences but not always
Examples of testing
- IQ test
- Abnormal personality (mental disorders)
- Vocational testing
- Educational testing
- I/O (industrial/organizational) psychological testing
- Learners permit exam
What are some IQ or intelligence tests
- Raven's progressive matrices
What are some types of abnnormal personality testing?
What is a type of vocational testing?
How do we put numbers or categories onto people?
Abstract construct or Operational definition
What is abstract construct?
something that we can't directly measure that is of psychological interest. ex. intelligence, alcoholism, introversion, vocational ability, mental illness
what is operational definition?
- a formal method of assigning a number or category to someone
- operational definitions bring abstract constructs down to earth
- a test is an operational definition
what are two aspects of testing?
- Theoretical/Methodological Psychometrics and Substantive or appplied
- Specific tests assessment
What is Psychometrics?
an attempt to measure your mental ability or your personality
What are the two stages in the use of a test?
Development and Deployment the people who use them (clinical psychologist for example)
What is the development stage in using a test?
- you must "test the test" on many people to get:
- Psychometrics-how good is the test
- Population and subpopulation norms
What is Deployment in the use of testing?
You use the test on a single person to get information about him or her
Test are developed by...
Tests are used by...
Clinical psychologists, I/O psychologists, school psychologists, and others
Are tests the same thing as surveys?
What do test and surveys have in common?
- they both have lists of questions, but they serve different purposes
- many things we learn about test design also applies to surveys
What is the difference between tests and surveys?
- Surveys look at general attitudes shared by many people
- Tests summarize something about a single person
What is the difference between testing and assessment?
- Assessment-broad, includes any kind of assessment adn can be formal or informal
- Testing-narrow, includes only tests
What is formal assessment testing?
tests with a scoring procedure
What is informal assessment testing?
interviews and other formats that lack a scoring procedure
Which is better: Multiple or single assessment?
Mutiple assessment always yield a better picture than a single assessment
What were precursors?
a civil-service exam in China that ran from approximately 2200 B.C. to 1905
What did the Precursor tests consist of?
- Knowing the Four Great Books and Five Classics
- Many students failed. myths say some failed because they were corrupted by women and alcohol
- Some used to cheat by writing answers on a shirt
- Test harder than getting into Harvard
Who had the first pschology lab?
Who was Raymond Cattell?
he invented the term mental test, started the psychological corporation, which still owns many important tests
What are group ability tests?
- Army alpha test of intelligence
- Army Beta test
- Group achievement tests- Stanford Achievement test
What is the Army alpha test of intelligence
Developed in WWI to test recruits. Culturally biased and very difficult
What were army beta test?
and attempt to make a language-free version of the alpha
What are SAT's
developed after WWII, these were an attempt to make entrance to colleges fair, although they are now accused of the opposite
What are the group achievement tests- Standford Achievement test?
- this has blossomed under "no child left behind", and each state has different tests.
- Sc had BSAP and then the PACT
What are tests in the affective (emotional) domain?
- Interests (vocational)
- Objective personality tests
- Projective personality tests
People who used interest (vocational)/blank tests?
- Edward Thorndyke (1912) published a study of the interests of 100 students as they went through school
- J.B. Miner (1922) did an early "interest blanks"
- Strong Vocational Interest Blank was developed int he 1920's and continues to be used today
Who used objective personality tests?
- Woodworth developed an early objective personality test to test soldiers in WWI for mental illness
- It became the model for the MMPI that we still use today
What are projective personality tests?
- the basic idea is to give people an ambiguous stimulus, and they project their personalities into these stimuli in their responses
- originally developed by C.G. Jung
- reading a word and say the first word that comes as a response
student of Jung's that developed the famous Rorshach ink blots
later developed the TAT (thematic apperception test), which consisted of photographs.
What are some ways informal assessment is used today?
- Industry: situational test in industry; replicate a naturalistic work situation
- Mental health: Clinical interviews in clinical psychology
- Schools: rating scales and other methods increased because laws governing students' rights have increased