Entomology Exam 1

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Entomology Exam 1
2012-09-11 08:21:25

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  1. 7 Common Parts of an Insects Anatomy 
    • 1.Head
    • 2.Thorax
    • 3. Abdomen
    • 4.Mouthparts
    • 5.Antennae 
    • 6. Wings
  2. The Phylum, Superclass and Class of Insects
    Phylum- Anthropoda

    Superclass- Hexapoda

    Class- Insecta
  3. Where are Insects Located?
    Everywhere, except the ocean
  4. Scavenger
    Feed on Dead Material
  5. Phytophagous
    Feeds on Plants
  6. Predaceous
    Feeds on Living Animals, Kills Prey
  7. Parasitoids
    Feeds on Living Animals, Kills Host
  8. Parasites
    Feeds on Living Animals, Does Not Kill Host
  9. 3 Phases to Managing Pest?
    1. Cultural methods and natural products

    2. Insecticides like DDT

    3. Integrated Pest Management 
  10. Factors in the Success of Insects (6)
    1. Highly adaptable exoskeleton

    2. Early colonization of terrestrial habitat 

    3. Small Body Size 

    4. High Birth Rate and Short Generation Time

    5. Highly Efficient Flight 

    6. Evolution of Complete Metamorphosis
  11. Trait Found in Development in Order Protura
    Anamorphic Development- Add Body Segement as They Grow
  12. Trait Found in Development Order Collembola 
    Epimorphic Development- Number of Segment Remains the Same
  13. Trait Found in Development Order Diplura 
    Mouth Parts Retracted into Cavity of Mouth 
  14. Insecta Means 
    To Cut in to
  15. Class Insecta- Subclass (Without Wings)?
    Subclass Apterygota-Ametabolous 
  16. Class Insecta- Subclass (With Wings)?
    Subclass Pterygota
  17. Insects With Ancient Wings That Do Not Fold Over Abdomen? (Infraclass)
  18. Insects With New Wings THat Fold Flat Over Abdomen? (Infraclass)
  19. Name and Class for External Wing Development
    Hemimetabolous- Exopterygota
  20. Name and Class for Internal Wing Development
    Holometabolous- Endopterygota
  21. Orders in Ametabolous-Apterygotes (5)
    1. Order Protura 

    2.Order Diplura 

    3.Order Thysanura 

    4. Order Collembola 

    5. Archeognatha
  22. Orders in Pterygotes-Hemimetabolous-Exopterygota
    • Infraclass Paleoptera
    •     -Order Ephemeroptera (Mayflies)
    •     -Order Odonata (Dragonflies)
    • Infraclass Neoptera 
    •     -Super Order Orthropteroidea (Grasshoppers)
    •     -Super Order Hemipteroidea (Beetles)
  23. Evolution Sequence-(Body Segments and Wings) 
    • Subclass Apterygota
    • -Orders-Ametabolous 
    • Subclass Pterygota 
    • -Infraclass Paleoptera
    •        -Orders-Exopterygotes
    • -Infraclass Neoptera
    •        -SuperOrders-Exopterygotes
    •        -Orders-Endopterygotes 
  24. Homology 
    Structure That Shares a Common Ancestral Trait
  25. Analogy
    Structures That Do Not Share a Common Ancestral Trait, But Evolved for Similar Functions
  26. Serial Homology 
    Structures that share a common ancestral segmental origin, but occur on different segments of the same organism
  27. Evolution Of Body Regions (6)
    1. Worm-like Ancestor

    2. Appendages

    3. Cephalization-(Nerve Centralized in One Area)

    4. Arthropodization-(Development of Exoskeleton)

    5. Terrestrial Adaptation

    6. Tagmosis-(Fusing and Modifying Segments)
  28. Basic Evolution Process
    1.Wingless Insects Evolved 

    2.Wings Evolved 

    3.Wing Flexion

    4.Complete Metamorphosis
  29. Wing Origin
    Paranotal-wings developed out of thorax body wall segments, first for gliding, then flight.
  30. Outer Lobe of Any Limb(Gill) Segement
  31. Sclerite
    Hard Thickened Areas of The Exoskeleton
  32. Membrane
    Thin Cuticle Between Sclerites 
  33. Tergite
    Dorsal Sclerite
  34. Sternite
    Ventral Sclerite
  35. Spin 
  36. Spur 
    Can Move 
  37. Seta 
  38. Movement 
    Muscle attachment to apophysis or phragma of primary segment. Secondary segment forms due to overlap. Segments connected by intersegmental membrane.
  39. Properties of the Integument 
    • 1. Strength-Hollow Cylinder
    • 2.Highly Variable- Very hard to Soft and Flexible 
    • 3.Water Balance- Restricts Water Loss or Gain
    • 4.Protection- From Foriegn Micro-Organisms and Chemicals 
    • 5.Site of Sensory Organs 
    • 6.Modified to Form Exocrine Glands-Chemical Defense/Communication
    • 7.Source of Color
  40. Procuticle 
    • -Undifferentiated Cuticle
    • -After Molting it will become Exocuticle or Endocuticle 
  41. Exocuticle 
    • -Proteins are sclerotized = cross-linked
    • -Rigid, hard, strong
    • -Absent in membranous areas of cuticle
  42. Endocuticle 
    • -Proteins are NOT highly cross-linked
    • -Microfibers highly oriented and layered
    • -Produced continuously
    • -Digested and recycled during molting
  43. Epicuticle 
    • -Functions as Wax or Lipid layer 
    • -prevents water loss
    • - protection against penetration by chemicals and foreign organisms
    • - chemical communication
  44. Resilin 
    rubber-like protein found in hinge regions of the cuticle
  45. Color 
    Structural-cuticle can split light into different wavelengths

    • Pigmentary or chemical -
    • Tanning-crosslinking of protein results in brown
    • Melanin - black pigment
    • Dietary pigement From Plants 
  46. Insect Exoskeleton
  47. Cuticle Composition
  48. Molting Process