chapter 20

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chapter 20
2010-04-30 23:55:04

chapter 20
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  1. slow growth rate, grows by expansion, tumor remains localized , cell is well differentiated
    benign tumor
  2. rapid growth rate, infiltration growth, tumor metastasis by bloodstream and lymphatics, cell is poorly differentiated
  3. any benign tumor projecting from surface epithelium
    polyp, papilloma
  4. a benign tumor. Root word designates primary tissue of origin
    root word + oma (suffix
  5. malignant tumor arising from surface, glandular, or parenchymal epithelium (but not endothelium or mesothelium)
  6. malignant tumor of any primary tissue other than surface, glandular and parenchymal epithelium
  7. neoplasm of blood cells
  8. gland (root word)
  9. vessels (type not specified) (root word)
  10. cartilage (root word)
  11. fibrous tissue (root word)
  12. blood vessels (root word)
  13. lymph vessels (root word)
  14. fat (root word)
  15. muscle (root word)
  16. nerve (root word)
  17. bone (root word)
  18. all neoplasms of lymphoid tissue are called lymphomas and are malignant: Hodgkins disease and non-hodgkins disease lymphomas
    lymphoid tumors
  19. *pigment producing cells of epidermis:
    -benign: nervus, a Latin word that means "birthmark"
    -malignant: melanoma or malignant melanoma
    -benign: basal cell carcinoma
    - malignant: squamous cells carcinoma (sometimes metastasizes)
    skin tumors
  20. derived from cells that have the potential to differentiate into different types of tissue (bone, muscle, glands, epithelium, brain tissue, hair) and may be either benign or malignant. A common type of cystic benign teratoma arising in the ovary is usually called a dream cyst
    teratoma tumors (of mixed components)
  21. derived from persisting groups of embryonic cells of the brain, retina, adrenal gland, kidney, liver, or genital tract. Named from the site of origin, with the suffix "-blastoma" added (blast= a primitive cell + oma = tumor); medulloblastoma: medulla of the brain; retinoblastoma: retina of the eye; hepatoblastoma: liver; Wilm's tumor: kidney, exception in naming (nephroblastoma not used)
    embryonic tumors
  22. noninfiltrating tumors are common in many locations, including the breast, cervix, colon, skin, and urinary tract. in situ carcinoma can be completely cured by surgical excision
    noninfiltrating (in situ) carcinoma
  23. refers to conditions that have a high likelihood of developing into cancer:
    -skin cancer: actinic keratoses ("actinic" refers to sun rays), lentigo maligna: a latin term meaning "malignant freckle")
    -oral cancer: leukoplakis (leuko=white + plakia = patch) may develop in the mucous membranes of the motuh as a result of exposure to tobacco tars from smoking or use of smokeless tobacco
    -colon polyps
    precancerous conditions
  24. withdrawal of fluid from a lump, often a cyst
  25. removal of cells or tissues fro examination under a microscope
  26. a procedure in which a thin, lighted tube is inserted into the body part being examined and a tissue sample (biopsy) is taken to examine under a microscope to determine if cancer cells are present
  27. scope inserted through the nose or mouth to examine the colon
  28. scope inserted into the urethra to examine the bladder
  29. examination of the larynx (voice box) with a mirror(indirect laryngoscopy) or with a laryngoscope (direct laryngoscopy)
  30. scope inserted into the sigmoid part of the colon. also called proctosigmoidoscopy
  31. a tumor marker whos purpose is cancer of the prostate, obtained by blood sample or may be used to monitor response to treatment or recurrence
    acid phosphatase
  32. hepatocellular carcinoma germ cell tumors, used to monitor treatment response
  33. cancers of the pancreas, colon, cervix and ovary, a relatively specific tumor-associated antigen
    CA 19-9
  34. epithelial ovarian cancer, a tumor associated antigen that might be used in conjunction with vaginal ultrasound for screening
    CA 125
  35. cancers of the pancreas, colon, breast, lung, stomach, ovary; high levels correlate with high tumor burden
  36. malignant germ cell tumors originating from ovaries or sperm, ovarian or uterine cancer in women and testicular cancer in men; return to normal indicates cure
  37. multiple myeloma; malignant clone can be IgG, IgM, or IgA
    monoclonal immunoglobulins
  38. cancer of the prostate; used particularly to monitor response to treatment
  39. xray or computerized view with or without a contrast dye or radioactive substance
  40. cancer of the colon; series of x rays of the colon taken after the person is given an enema that contains barium. barium outlines the intestines on the xrays
    barium enema
  41. cross section images of internal structures; xrays (plus or minus) contrast dye with the creation of pictures by a computer linked to an xray machine, highly specificity, especially brain tumors
    computed axial tomography (CAT, CT, ACTA)
  42. cancer of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; dye is injected into a blood vessel and concentrated in the urine to visualize the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
    intravenous pyelogram or intravenous pyelography (IVP)
  43. lymph node involvement, especially Hodgkins disease, lymphoma, cancer of testes; blue dye, injected into lymphatic channel, visualizes abdominal lymph nodes
  44. shows function and size of specific organ (brain, bone, liver, spleen, kidney); used for staging because of specificity; radioactive material is injected or swallowed and radioactivity measured with a scanner
    radionuclide scan
  45. visualizes structural changes, mass (stomach, pancreas, kidney, uterus, ovary); uses high frequency sound waves
  46. obtained from a tissue sample
    microscopic examination
  47. tumor involvement, esp by leukemia or lymphoma; needle aspirate of marrow from iliac crest or sternum
    bone-marrow aspirate
  48. cancer of the breast; cells taken from the breast tissue, defines certain tumors that may be more responsive to hormonal therapy
    estrogen/progesterone receptors
  49. cancer of the cervix or uterus; cells obtained by swab of vagina, endocervical canal, and exocervix
    pap smear
  50. tumor metastasis, for example, breast cancer; dye or radioactive substance injected near a tumor flows into the sentinel lymph node(s)--the first lymph node(s), that cancer is likely to spread from the primary tumor
    sentinel lymph node biopsy
  51. bronchogenic cancer; examination of mucus coughed up from the lungs, used to detect abnormal lung cells
    sputum cytology
  52. cancer of the colon/rectum; a test to check for blood in stool (fecal refers to stool, occult means hidden)
    stool guaiac
  53. treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease [also, immunotherapy or biological response modifier (BRM) therapy]
  54. a procedure in which bone marrow is removed from a person, stored and then given back to the person following intensive treatment
    autologous bone marrow transplantation
  55. an anticancer drug, bacille calmette-Guerin (BCG), that activates the immune system
    BCG vaccine
  56. substances that stimulate the production of blood cells; granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF); granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF)
    colony-stimulating factors
  57. replacing blood forming cells destroyed by cancer treatment. immature blood cells (stem cells) are given after treatment to help the bone marrow recover and produce healthy blood cells. sources of stem cells are bone marrow and are allogenic, autologous or syngenic
    peripheral stem cell transplantation
  58. stem cells donated by someone else
  59. stem cells removed from a person, stored, and then given back to the person following intensive treatment
  60. stem cells donated by an identical twin
  61. treatment with anticancer drugs to destroy cancer cells by stopping them from growing or multiplying
  62. radiotherapy uses high-energy radiation from x rays, neutrons and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors
    radiation therapy
  63. uses a machine to aim high-energy rays at the cancer
  64. given internally by placing radioactive material that is sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters directly into or near the tumor
  65. giving a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body
    systemic radiation therapy
  66. surgical removal of the bladder
  67. treatment performed with an instrument that freezes and destroys abnormal tissues
  68. destroying tissue using an electric current
  69. surgical removal of the uterus
  70. an operation to remove all or part of the larynx (voice box)
  71. a device that concentrates light into an intense, narrow beam used to cut or destroy tissue. it is used in microsurgery, photodynamic therapy, and for a variety of diagnostic purposes
  72. surgery to remove the tumor and a small amount of normal tissue around it
  73. surgery to remove the breast (or as much of the breast tissue as possible)
  74. surgical procedure in which the breast, some of the lymph nodes in the armpit, and the lining over the chest muscles are removed
    modified radical mastectomy
  75. surgical removal of one or both testicles
  76. surgical removal of an entire lung
  77. surgical removal of part or all of the prostate
  78. surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries
  79. treatment of cancer by removing, blocking, or adding hormones. also called endocrine therapy
    hormone therapy
  80. drugs used to block the production or interfere with the action of male sex hormones
  81. a substance that closely resembles luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone (LH-RH), which controls the secretion of sex hormones; given to decrease secretion of sex hormones
    luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist
  82. cytoreduction; oncologic emergencies; neurosurgical procedures/pain control; nutritional support
  83. excision of premalignant lesions
  84. local excision; en bloc dissection
  85. cosmetic and functional restoration
  86. lung; liver
    resection of metastases
  87. insertion of access devices such as a porta catheter for infusion of drugs for chemotherapy; radiation implants
  88. cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs
  89. benign (noncancerous) condition in which cells have abnormal features and are increased in number
    atypical hyperplasia
  90. not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body
  91. a term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body
  92. any substance that causes cancer
  93. cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs
  94. a sac or capsule filled with fluid
  95. abnormal cells that involve only the lining of a duct. the cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast
    ductal carcinoma in situ
  96. a type of cancer in which the cells are flat and look like fish scales. also called squamous cell carcinoma
    epidermoid carcinoma
  97. an inherited condition in which numerous polyps (tissue masses) develop on the inside walls of the colon and rectum/. it increases the risk of colon cancer
    familial polyposis
  98. a benign smooth muscle tumor, usually in the uterus or gastrointestinal tract. also called leiomyoma
  99. an abnormal increases in the number of cells in an organ or tissue
  100. a group of lung cancers in which cells are large and look abnormal when viewed under a microscope
    large cell carcinomas
  101. abnormal cells found in the lobules of the breast. this condition seldom becomes invasive cancer. however, having lobular carcinoma in situ increases one's risk of developing breast cancer in either breast
    lobular carcinoma in situ
  102. cancerous; a growth with a tendency to invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body
  103. a group of lung cancers that includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma
    nonsmall cell lung cancer
  104. a type of lung cancer in which the cells look like oats when viewed under a microscope. also called small cell lung cancer
    oat cell cancer
  105. a growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane
  106. a cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels. or other connective or supportive tissue
  107. a type of lung cancer in which the cells appear small and round when viewed under the microscope. also called oat cell lung cancer
    squamous cell carcinoma
  108. cancer that begins in squamous cells. which are thing, flat cells resembling fish scales. squamous cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts. also called epidermoid carcinoma
    squamous cell carcinoma
  109. an abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division. tumors may be either benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous)